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1640 - Prosecutors of the Captaincy of Saint Vincent expel the Jesuits. The Spanish domain comes to an end.
1644 - In quarreling with the West India Company, Mauricio de Nassau leaves the position of governor.
1645 - Insurrection of the Luso-Brazilians of Pernambuco against the Dutch.
1648 - In the first Battle of Guararapes the Dutch are defeated by Francisco Barreto.
1654 - Final expulsion of the Dutch from Brazil.
1661 - Through a peace treaty the Dutch recognize the loss of Brazil's colony. Alliance with Portugal authorizes English trade in Brazil and India.
1669 - Francisco de Mota Falcão builds the São José do Rio Negro Fort.
1671 - By decree, foreign ships are allowed to enter Brazilian ports.
1674 - Flag of Fernão Dias Pais Leme departs towards the backwoods of Minas Gerais.
1684 - Explains, in Maranhão, the Beckman Uprising.
1685 - Built four forts in the Amazon region, threatened by the French of Cayenne. The Portuguese Crown prohibits the production of manufactures in Brazil.
1694 - The first mint is built in Bahia. First news of gold discovery in Minas Gerais.
1702 - Intendência das Minas is created with the main function of distributing land for gold exploration and tax collection to the Royal Treasury.
1708 - Starts the Emboabas War.
1710 - The Muscat War broke out, a conflict between Olinda's planters and the Recife merchants.
1711 - Through Royal Charter São Paulo is elevated to the category of city.
1713- Through the Utrecht Treaty; France accepts the Oiapoque River as the boundary between Guyana and Brazil.
1715 - By the Treaty of Utrecht; Spain agrees to return the Colony of Sacramento to Portugal.
1720 - Foundry Houses are created. That year, the Vila Rica Uprising begins, in protest against the creation of the Foundry Houses.
1722 - Expedition of Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva, Anhanguera, who would discover gold in the Goiás backlands.
1727 - Cuiabá is founded by the governor Rodrigo César.
1728 - Discovered the first diamond deposits in Serro Frio (now Diamantina).
1729 - Starts the production of diamonds in Tijuco village, present-day city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais.
1737 - Beginning of the Portuguese occupation of Rio Grande do Sul, focused on cattle breeding.
1747 - By royal license are confiscated the types of press existing in Brazil.
1750 - By the Treaty of Madrid, it is recognized the dominion of Portugal over the territories west of the meridian of Tordesillas.
1752 - Azorean settlers arrive in Rio Grande do Sul; Some families settle in Porto dos Casais (Porto Alegre).
1759 - The Jesuits are expelled from Brazil.
1761 - Through the Pardo Agreement Spain and Portugal annul the Treaty of Madrid.
1763 - Transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the State of Brazil.
1765 - The spill was decreed, which obliged the mining population to complete the accumulated sum of the tax due.
1766 - Starts rice planting in Maranhão.
1771 - Diamond Intendance begins to work.
1775 - Reunification of the states of Brazil and Grão-Pará and Maranhão.
1777 - Treaty of Santo Ildefonso between Portugal and Spain. The Colony of the Sacrament definitely passes into Spanish rule.
1777 - Death of D. José I and ascension of D. Maria I to the Portuguese throne. Pombal is removed from the government and the direction of Portuguese politics and administration undergo a radical change (phase known as "Turning").
1789 - Inconfidência Mineira, first of the emancipationist movements that characterize the crisis of the Colonial System.
1792 - Execution of Tiradentes.
1798 - Conjuration of Tailors or Inconfidência Baiana: emancipationist movement with predominant participation of popular elements. It had social projects, such as the abolition of slavery.
1801 - The Rio Grande do Sul occupy the territory of the former Seven Peoples of the Missions, then held by the Spanish, enjoying a short war between Portugal and Spain. The Badajoz Treaty, signed between the two countries that same year, implicitly recognizes the Lusitanian dominion over that region.
- Conspiracy of the Suaçunas, a conciliabulo of Pernambuco planters that some historians insist on considering as an emancipationist movement. No punishments are imposed on those alleged.
1808 - Arrival of D. João to Bahia, beginning the JOANINO PERIOD (1808/21). Royal Charter determines the opening of Brazilian ports “to all friendly nations”. End of the “exclusive” metropolitan and weakening of the Colonial Pact. Passage from Brazil to the direct orbit of English industrial capitalism, replacing the anachronistic Portuguese mercantilist colonialism.
- Industrial Freedom Permit, repealing the prohibitions imposed by D. Maria I in 1785. Measure of little practical scope, given the lack of technology and capital in Brazil.
- Installation of Régia Press and publication of the first Brazilian newspaper.
- Creation of medical schools (first higher education courses in Brazil) in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador.
1810 - Beginning of British pressure to end slave trade in Brazil.
1815 - Elevation of Brazil to the category of United Kingdom to Portugal and Algarves.
1817 - Pernambuco Revolution. Last emancipationist movement and the only one that reached the stage of armed struggle.
1818 - The Prince Regent becomes King, under the title of Dom John VI. Created the Swiss colony of Nova Friburgo, in Rio de Janeiro.
1820 - The news of the Porto Revolution arrives in Brazil.
1821 - End of absolutism in Brazil. D. John VI agrees to submit to the authority of the Cortes. Provisional Government Boards replace the provincial governors (new denomination of captaincies) appointed by the king.
- Under pressure from the Lisbon Courts, D. João VI returns to Portugal, leaving Crown Prince D. Pedro as regent of Brazil.
- The Cortes demand the return of D. Pedro to Portugal.
1822 - Fico Day (January 9) - D. Pedro refuses to obey the Cortes and decides to stay in Brazil. From there, the process of independence is accelerated.
1822 - Dom Pedro proclaims the independence of Brazil. (September 7th)