The Hebrew Kings
The first Hebrew king was Saul (1010 BC) who led wars against the Philistines but died unable to overcome them. It was succeeded by David (1006 to 966 BC), who succeeded in defeating the Philistines and established dominion over Palestine, founding the Hebrew State, whose capital became Jerusalem. And it began a phase marked by military expansionism and prosperity.
Then Solomon (966 to 926 BC); wise and peaceful famous for power and wealth. Son of David developed commerce, increasing the influence of the kingdom without resorting to war. However, the abundance and wealth that marked his reign required the constant increase in taxes, which impoverished the worker more and more, creating a climate of dissatisfaction among the Hebrew people.
The political-religious schism: the kingdoms of Israel and Judah
After Solomon's death, there was the political and religious division of the tribes and the end of the unified monarchy.
The Hebrews split into ten northern tribes and formed the Kingdom of Israel, led by Jerobaam. After internal disputes, they reached an agreement in 878 BC, choosing Omri as king. Although worship of Yahweh persists, the worship of various gods was introduced.
Two southern tribes formed the Kingdom of Judah, led by Rehoboam son of Solomon (924 BC).
The foreign domination
From the beginning the Kingdom of Israel lived in idolatry; This caused the wrath of God to come upon him, allowing in 722 BC to be conquered by Sargon II of Assyria, and his people to be taken into captivity, their territory inhabited by other peoples, placed there by order of king of Assyria.
God's punishment came upon her through King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 BC. The holy city, Jerusalem, was destroyed and the Temple burned and the nobles were bound and taken into captivity.
The captivity lasted until the days of Cyrus, king of Persia, who allowed the people who were enslaved in Chaldea to return to Palestine and rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem (536 BC). Then Palestine was invaded by Alexander of Macedonia (322 BC). Then it passed to its Egyptian protectorate (301 BC), Syrian Colony (198 BC), and Roman province (63 BC).
In the year 70 of the Christian era, after a failed revolt against Roman domination, Jerusalem was conquered by Titus and his armies, with a second destruction of the Temple. Currently there is only one wall of the Jerusalem temple known as the Western Wall.
The religion of the Hebrews
The Hebrews were one of the first peoples to worship a single god, that is, they were monotheists. In Judaism, a religion professed by the Hebrews, the only god is Yahweh, whose image cannot be represented in paintings or statues.
Judaism is based on the Ten Commandments supposedly revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. The two characteristic features of the Hebrew religion are monotheism and salvationism - the belief in the coming of a Messiah or Savior to liberate the Hebrew people.
Judaism is one of the foundations of Christianity, with which Islam formed the triad of universal religions.
Pages of a Bible written in Aramaic
Of the culture created by the Hebrews, religion is undoubtedly the most important legacy. Writing and literature among the Hebrews, people of Semitic language, came very early through their own writing. Archeology revealed the existence of writing from the middle of the second millennia a. C., (time of Exodus). Gradually, however, they replaced their original language with Aramaic, which was the commercial and diplomatic language of the Near East. The current Hebrew alphabet is a variety of Aramaic, which along with the Aramaic language has become very widespread, supplanting the other Semitic alphabets and languages.
Stone fragment with Aramaic writing
In the arts Hebrew monotheism influenced all the cultural achievements of the Hebrews. It should be noted the architecture, especially the construction of temples, walls and fortifications. The greatest architectural achievement was the Temple of Jerusalem.
In the sciences they made no remarkable progress. The cultural importance of Hebrew society resided mainly in the religious and moral sphere (in the Mosaic law), its area of influence reached the West and much of the East.