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14 November 1943

14 November 1943

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14 November 1943



War at Sea

German submarine U-595 scuttled off Oran

14 November 1943 - History

November 14

Events - November 14
1832 - The first horsecar (a streetcar drawn by horses) was displayed in New York City. The vehicle had room for 30 people in three compartments. The new service traveled Fourth Avenue between Prince and Fourteenth Streets.

1851 - “Call me Ishmael. Some years ago -- never mind how long precisely -- having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world. ” Thus begins Herman Melville’s book "Moby-Dick or, The Whale", which was first published in New York City by Harper & Brothers on this day. The complex, but rousing sea story tells the tale of a sea captain’s search for Moby Dick, the great white whale that had once crippled him. The story is told by sailor-narrator Ishmael. Through the pages of "Moby Dick", we meet Ishmael’s bunkmate Queequeg, a whale harpooner from Polynesia learn everything there is to know about whaling in the nineteenth century and, of course, about Captain Ahab and his obsession with Moby Dick.

1921 - KYW radio, Chicago, IL broadcast the first opera by a professional company. Listeners heard "Samson Et Dalila" as it was being performed at the Chicago Auditorium.

1943 - Leonard Bernstein replaced an indisposed Bruno Walter as conductor of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. Thus began a legendary career and worldwide appreciation for Bernstein’s many compositions with the orchestra.

1944 - An outstanding array of musicians gathered in Hollywood to record a classic. Tommy Dorsey and orchestra made "Opus No. 1", Victor record number 20-1608. Buddy Rich was the drummer in the session, Al Klink and Buddy DeFranco blew sax and Nelson Riddle played trombone on the Sy Oliver arrangement.

1945 - Captain Eddie Rickenbacker sold the historic Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Former Indy winner Wilbur Shaw became the new president and manager of the speedway. The track was purchased by the Tony Holman family a short time later.

1951 - The first telecast of a world lightweight title fight was seen coast to coast. Jimmy Carter beat Art Aragon in Los Angeles.

1954 - Egyptian President Naguib was fired and a state of emergency declared. Naguib (also a general) was accused of having been a tool of the Communists and the Muslim Brotherhood. He was driven from the presidency by his fellow army officers, and Colonel Gamel Abdul Nasser became president.

1959 - The eruption of Kilauea Iki Crater (Nov 14-Dec 20, 1959) on the Big Island of Hawaii was a relatively brief event, but produced some of Kilauea’s most spectacular lava fountains of the 20th century. (The current Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea began in 1983).

1964 - Gordie Howe of the Detroit Red Wings set a National Hockey League record as he scored his 627th career goal in a game against Montreal.

1965 - One of the most intense battles of the Vietnam War started on this day. Landing Zone X-ray, a clearing located in the Ia Drang River Valley, Vietnam, was a staging area for U.S. troops and supplies. The area had been surrounded on three sides by North Vietnamese Regulars. The U.S. troops had come to fight the North Vietnamese on their own ground and “were keen to fight.” Both sides received more action than they expected. When the battle ended almost 48 hours later, literally thousands of soldiers from both sides lay dead. The book -- and the movie, We Were Soldiers Once. And Young, was based on this battle.

1966 - Boxing’s largest indoor crowd assembled in the Houston Astrodome to see Cassius Clay defeat Cleveland Williams -- by a TKO.

1967 - The Monkees received a gold record for "Daydream Believer".

1972 - For the first time in its 76-year history, the Dow Jones industrial average closed above the 1,000 mark: 1003.16.

1975 - "They Just Can’t Stop It (The Games People Play)" became a gold record for the Spinners. Their other hits include "Then Came You" (with Dionne Warwicke), "Could It Be I’m Falling in Love", "The Rubberband Man", "Working My Way Back to You", "Cupid", "It’s a Shame" and "I’ll Be Around" -- for Motown.

1979 - U.S. President Jimmy Carter froze Iranian government assets held in American banks, following the seizure of the U.S. embassy in Tehran.

1981 - Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant tied the record of Amos Alonzo Stagg for most football wins. The Alabama Crimson Tide notched win #314 for Coach Bryant. Alabama beat Penn State, 31-16.

1981 - For the second week in a row, Daryl Hall and John Oates owned the top spot on the pop music charts with "Private Eyes".

1986 - The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission announced that Ivan Boesky would have to pay $100 million in fines and alleged profits to settle insider-trading charges against him. The settlement was just $6 million less than the entire S.E.C. budget for 1986.

1987 - The "Dirty Dancing" movie soundtrack was the number one album in the U.S. It was number one for a total of eighteen weeks. The remainder of the top-five that week: 2)-"Tunnel of Love" (Bruce Springsteen) 3)-"Bad" (Michael Jackson) 4)-"Whitesnake" (Whitesnake) 5)-"A Momentary Lapse of Reason" (Pink Floyd).

1990 - British commentator Malcolm Muggeridge died in Sussex, England. He was 87 years old.

1993 - Don Shula was carried off the Veterans Stadium field by his Miami Dolphins after a 19-14 win over the Philadelphia Eagles. That victory was #325 in Shula’s career and made him the winningest coach in NFL history, surpassing the legendary George Halas. (Of all NFL coaches, only Shula and Halas reached 300 victories.) Shula finished his career in 1995 with a coaching record of 347-173-6. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1997.

1997 - New movies in U.S. theatres: "The Jackal" (“How do you stop an assassin who has no identity?”), starring Bruce Willis, Richard Gere and Sidney Poitier "The Man who Knew too Little" (“He’s on a mission so secret, even he doesn’t know about it.”), with Bill Murray, Peter Gallagher and Joanne Whalley and "One Night Stand" (“It was just one night that changed everything.”), starring Wesley Snipes, Nastassja Kinski and Robert Downey Jr.

1999 - Democrat Bill Bradley took center court at New York’s Madison Square Garden for a $1.5 million presidential campaign fund-raiser. The gathering also featured many of his old New York Knicks teammates -- and former basketball rivals.

2003 - In Pittsburgh, PA, a third person died from an outbreak of hepatitis A that had infected nearly 600 people. They all had eaten at a Chi-Chi’s Mexican mall restaurant. Green onions were blamed for the outbreak.

2004 - Usher was a big winner at the American Music Awards in Los Angeles: favorite male soul-R&B artist best pop-rock album best pop-rock artist and best soul-R&B album.

2008 - The U.S. Army promoted a woman to the rank of four-star general for the first time. Ann Dunwoody received her fourth star on this day in a ceremony held at the Pentagon in Washington DC.

Birthdays - November 14
1765 - Robert Fulton (builder of first profitable steamboat: the Clermont died Feb 24, 1815)

1840 - Claude Monet (artist: Water Lilies, La Grenouillere, Impression: Sunrise, Old St. Lazare Station, Paris died Dec 5, 1926)

1889 - Jawaharlal Nehru (India’s 1st prime minister after its independence died May 27, 1964)

1896 - Mamie Doud Eisenhower (First Lady: wife of 34th U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower died Nov 1, 1979)

1900 - Aaron Copland (Academy Award-winning composer: film score: The Heiress [1948] Of Mice and Men, Our Town, Lincoln Portrait, Fanfare for the Common Man ballet score: Billy the Kid Pulitzer Prize- winner: Appalachian Spring [1945] died Dec 2, 1990)

1904 - Dick (Richard E.) Powell (actor: Too Busy to Work, Footlight Parade, Gold Diggers of 1933, Gold Diggers of 1935, Gold Diggers of 1937, Hollywood Hotel, Murder, My Sweet, Cry Danger, Four Star Playhouse, Susan Slept Here TV Host: The Best in Mystery, Zane Grey Theater, The Dick Powell Show (1961) TV died Jan 2, 1963)

1908 - Harrison Salisbury (Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist for International Reporting [1955] Moscow correspondent for NY Times died July 5, 1993)

1910 - Rosemary DeCamp (actress: Rhapsody in Blue, On Moonlight Bay, The Bob Cummings Show, That Girl, The Life of Riley died Feb 20, 2001)

1912 - Barbara Hutton (heiress: F.W. Woolworth died May 11, 1979)

1915 - Martha Tilton (singer: And the Angels Sing, A Stranger in Town actress: The Benny Goodman Story, Sunny died Dec 8, 2006)

1919 - Johnny Desmond (Giovanni Alfredo de Simone) (singer: Yellow Rose of Texas, Play Me Hearts and Flowers group: Bob-O-Links w/Bob Crosby Band solo: ‘G.I. Sinatra’: Glenn Miller AAF band, Don McNeill’s Breakfast Club, Your Hit Parade, Face the Music actor: Escape from San Quentin, China Doll, Hawk of the Caribbean died Sep 6, 1985)

1921 - Brian Keith (Robert Keith Richey, Jr.) (actor: Family Affair, Hardcastle & McCormick, Heartland, The Westerner, Crusader, Centennial, The Brian Keith Show, Walter and Emily, Nevada Smith, The Loneliest Runner, The Parent Trap, The Young Philadelphians, Young Guns died June 24, 1997)

1922 - Boutros Boutros-Ghali (UN Secretary-General [Jan 1992–Jan 1997] died Feb 16, 2016)

1924 - Phyllis Avery (actress: The George Gobel Show, Mr. Novak died May 19, 2011)

1927 - McLean Stevenson (actor: M*A*S*H, The McLean Stevenson Show, Hello Larry, The Tim Conway Comedy Hour, The Doris Day Show, Condo died Feb 15, 1996)

1929 - Tiny (DeWayne) Lund (auto racer: Daytona 500 winner [1963] died Aug 10, 1975)

1929 - Jimmy (James Anthony) Piersall (baseball: Boston Red Sox [all-star: 1954, 1956], Cleveland Indians, Washington Senators, LA Angels, New York Mets, California Angels died Jun 3, 2017)

1933 - Fred Haise Jr. (astronaut: Apollo 13 [1970])

1935 - King Hussein bin Talal (head of state: King of Jordan died Feb 7, 1999)

1935 - Don Stewart (actor: Guiding Light, The Doomsday Flight died Jan 9, 2006)

1940 - Freddie Garrity (singer: group: Freddie and the Dreamers: I’m Telling You Now died May 19, 2006)

1942 - Bryan Watson (hockey: NHL Montreal Canadiens, Detroit Red Wings, Oakland Seals, Pittsburgh Penguins, Washington Capitals)

1948 - Prince Charles (of Wales) (Charles Philip Arthur George Windsor Mountbatten) (heir to British throne)

1948 - Robert Ginty (actor: The Paper Chase, Hawaiian Heat, Falcon Crest, Baa Baa Black Sheep, Lady Dragon, Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, Madhouse, Programmed to Kill, Exterminator series, Coming Home died Sep 21, 2009)

1949 - James Young (musician: guitar: group: Styx: Lady, Suite Madame Blue, Come Sail Away, Miss America, Castle Walls, Superstars, Renegade, Babe, The Best of Times, Too Much Time on My Hands, Mr. Roboto)

1951 - Frankie Banali (musician: group: Quiet Riot)

1951 - Stephen Bishop (singer: It Might Be You musician: guitar singer, songwriter: On and On, Save It for a Rainy Day, Everybody Needs Love, This is the Night, Living in the Land of Abe Lincoln, theme for Animal House, Dream Girl, theme for China Syndrome: Somewhere In Between, Don’t You Worry, LPs: Careless, Bish)

1954 - Yanni (Chrysomallis) (musician: piano: LP: Optimystique music used on broadcasts of: Tour de France, Olympic Games, World Series swimmer: Greek National Swim Team)

1954 - Willie (Guillermo Villanueva) Hernandez (baseball: pitcher: Chicago Cubs, Philadelphia Phillies [World Series: 1983], Detroit Tigers [World Series: 1984/all-star: 1984-1986/Cy Young Award: 1984/Baseball Writers’ Award: 1984)

1955 - Jack Sikma (basketball: Milwaukee Bucks, Seattle Supersonics)

1956 - Alec John Such (musician: bass: group: Bon Jovi)

1959 - Paul McGann (actor: The Monocled Mutineer, Poppies, If I Had You, Gypo, Lie With Me, Hornblower: Loyalty, Sweet Revenge, Nature Boy, FairyTale: A True Story)

1962 - Laura San Giacomo (actress: Just Shoot Me, The Right to Remain Silent, Stephen King’s The Stand, Under Suspicion, Vital Signs, Pretty Woman, sex, lies and videotape, Miles from Home)

1964 - Patrick Warburton (actor: Seinfeld, Dave’s World, NewsRadio, Scream 3, The Emperor's New Groove, Men in Black 2)

1966 - Jeanette Jurado(singer: group: Exposé: Season’s Change)

1968 - Roland Martin (journalist, syndicated columnist, commentator: TV One TV host: News One Now author: Speak, Brother! A Black Man’s View of America, The First: President Barack Obama’s Road to the White House)

1971 - Michael Lewis (football [wide receiver]: New Orleans Saints, San Francisco 49ers)

1972 - Josh Duhamel (actor: Transformers, Las Vegas, Win a Date with Tad Hamilton!, The Picture of Dorian Gray, All My Children)

1977 - Brian Dietzen (actor: NCIS, Boy Meets World, Boston Public, From Justin to Kelly, Purgatory House, Self-Inflicted, Nowhere to Hide, Perception)

1979 - Olga Kurylenko (actress: Quantum of Solace, Hitman, Max Payne, Tyranny, Centurion, There Be Dragons, Land of Oblivion, The Expatriate, Seven Psychopaths, Empires of the Deep)

Chart Toppers - November 14
It’s Been a Long, Long Time - The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen)
Till the End of Time - Perry Como
I’ll Buy that Dream - The Pied Pipers
With Tears in My Eyes - Wesley Tuttle

Ebb Tide - The Frank Chacksfield Orchestra
Rags to Riches - Tony Bennett
Many Times - Eddie Fisher
There Stands the Glass - Webb Pierce

Big Bad John - Jimmy Dean
Fool #1 - Brenda Lee
Tower of Strength - Gene McDaniels
Walk on By - Leroy Van Dyke

Wedding Bell Blues - The 5th Dimension
Come Together - The Beatles
Baby It’s You - Smith
To See My Angel Cry - Conway Twitty

You Light Up My Life - Debby Boone
Boogie Nights - Heatwave
It’s Ecstasy When You Lay Down Next to Me - Barry White
More to Me - Charley Pride

Miami Vice Theme - Jan Hammer
Head over Heels - Tears For Fears
You Belong to the City - Glenn Frey
Can’t Keep a Good Man Down - Alabama

Those were the days, my friend. We thought they’d never end.

Written and edited by Carol Williams and John Williams
Produced by John Williams

Those Were the Days, the Today in History feature
from 440 International

Was Tarawa-November 1943-worth it or even neccesaary ?

Tarawa Abemama and Makin were attacked to provide air bases for reconnaissance and bomber support for the planned attack on the Marshall Islands (FLINTLOCK). More importantly, GALVANIC provided an opportunity to test doctrine, techniques, procedures and equipment being developed for amphibious assault (a tactic that had not been tried since Gallipoli) on objectives believed to be less well fortified (?) and with smaller garrisons than the Marshalls.

The problems and failures experienced at Tarawa were identified, studied and corrected by the Navy, Army and Marine Corps. Lessons learned at Tarawa made possible the bypassing of the Eastern Marshalls (Wotje, Maloelap, Mille, Jaluit) and the comparatively low casualties and rapid conquest of Kwajelein, Majuro and Eniwetok.

As the Navy, Marines and Army gained experience in amphibious assault, base development and sea control, more and more potential objectives were bypassed (Truk, Hansa Bay, Rabaul, Kavieng, Yap, Woleai, Kusai, Ponape, Wake, Palau, the Talauds, Sarangani Bay). Cape Gloucester, Arawe, Attu, Peleliu and Angaur probably could have been bypassed as well, but its easy to criticize after the fact.

Leyte, Mindanao and Luzon were probably necessary to cut off Japanese access to the resource areas of Indonesia, Malaya and Indochina, and to provide a base for the final attack on Japan (Formosa and Amoy on the China coast were the alternative). MacArthur moved against the Visayas and Mindanao on his own, without a directive.

At dawn on November 20, 1943, off Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands, a task force of U.S. Navy battleships, cruisers and destroyers moved into position for pre-invasion bombardment while transports carrying soldiers of the 165th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) sailed quietly into their assigned areas off Makin’s main island, Butaritari, at the southern edge of the atoll. Their mission: to capture the atoll from the Japanese for use as a base during future attacks on the nearby Japanese-held Marshall Islands.


Most of the amphibious assaults of the Pacific can be deemed unnecessary when viewed through hindsight.

There were only a few with legitimate reasons at the time they were launched to justify their practicality being questioned. Peleliu for one. Its strategic value was negated weeks before the invasion but they didn't cancel it because it would have been too bothersome to recall the fleet.

But at least Tarawa had some strategic and tactical value to use to support later amphibious assaults .

One of the big disconnects was the Navy always underestimated Japanese resistance when they planned amphibious assaults. There were often not enough assault forces, fire support was often pretty poor, intelligence was terrible, time tables were too restrictive. The justification for a lot of the amphibious assaults was simply that an airfield was already built, to save a few days or maybe weeks doing construction on a fresh location we instead knocked out two birds with one stone, we got ourselves an airfield and took one away from the Japanese. However, if we are basically destroying divisions in the process, that's not a fair trade.


Most of the amphibious assaults of the Pacific can be deemed unnecessary when viewed through hindsight.

There were only a few with legitimate reasons at the time they were launched to justify their practicality being questioned. Peleliu for one. Its strategic value was negated weeks before the invasion but they didn't cancel it because it would have been too bothersome to recall the fleet.

But at least Tarawa had some strategic and tactical value to use to support later amphibious assaults .

One of the big disconnects was the Navy always underestimated Japanese resistance when they planned amphibious assaults. There were often not enough assault forces, fire support was often pretty poor, intelligence was terrible, time tables were too restrictive. The justification for a lot of the amphibious assaults was simply that an airfield was already built, to save a few days or maybe weeks doing construction on a fresh location we instead knocked out two birds with one stone, we got ourselves an airfield and took one away from the Japanese. However, if we are basically destroying divisions in the process, that's not a fair trade.


Overall, I'd not all that impressed with how the Pacific theater was conducted.

First, we should have appointed one single commander to promote one single strategic goal. Instead we had two, we had Nimitz doing his thing, which often conflicted with MacArthur doing his thing. In the end I'd say MacArthur's view was more correct.

Second, so much of the island hopping was working toward supporting heavy bombing raids on Japan. Marshall Islands, Iwo, etc. And I'm not a fan of non-nuclear strategic bombing to end wars, which is what the USAAF was promising to get the Army and Marine Corps to take these islands they wanted. A whole lot of Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines died taking those islands and the juice was not worth the squeeze, strategic bombing didn't do much to end the war, at least not in comparison to what it costed.

Third, early war we dominating the Japanese in maneuver warfare, and I think a lot of senior brass started assuming it would always be like that. Instead, we should have taken a pause after Saipan and realized that the Japanese had completely shifted defensive tactics, techniques, and procedures and we needed to readjust off of them. We didn't, we were still more or less launching amphibious invasions with the same way, moving across islands the same way. Timetables for movement and objectives were still rushed. All of which caused undue casualties in my opinion.

However, Nimitz and many others never seemed to be bothered by casualties much, so I guess it worked out fine for them.

14 November 1943 - History

Exiled flyboys take on the Third Reich

Polish flying ace Jan Zumbach, left, of the 303 Kosciuszko Polish Fighter Squadron poses with his Supermarine Spitfire Mk.Vb EN951 RF-D. Zumbach was stationed with the RAF at this time, and the plane bears his distinctive Donald Duck symbol. With him are Wing Commander Stefan Witorzenc (center) and Flight Lieutenant Zygmunt Bienkowski (right).

Image: Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

When Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland at the outbreak of World War II, the Polish air force was quickly defeated. Many pilots escaped to France and Britain, eventually forming a force of over 8,000 airmen in Britain, which they called Wyspa Ostatniej Nadziei — "The Island of the Last Hope."

The British were initially unsure of the Polish airmen. Labeled inept by Nazi propaganda after their defeat, the Poles had to be trained to fly British planes and speak English well enough to communicate in combat. At one airfield the Polish pilots were instructed in British tactics by riding around on tricycles. Pilot Officer Jan Zumbach later wrote that “the British were wasting so much of our time with their childish exercises, when all of us had already won [our] wings."

But the fact that the British airmen were exhausted and the air force undermanned eventually overcame any reservations.

A Polish pilot is interviewed by an intelligence officer after a sortie for reconnaissance information.

Image: Central Press/Getty Images

The Polish airmen quickly gained a reputation for being fearless to the point of recklessness.

Flying Officer Ludwik Paszkiewicz was on a training exercise when he spotted an enemy plane at his altitude. He veered off and engaged the plane, downing it. For this he earned both a reprimand for breaking formation and congratulations on the squadron's first victory.

The daring Polish pilots attained a sort of celebrity, praised in magazines and given free food and drink in restaurants. In late 1940, an American visitor wrote, "they always have a girl on each arm. They say the girls cannot resist the Poles, nor the Poles the girls."

A RAF Polish airman writes out notices in Polish.

Image: Fox Photos/Getty Images

Two Polish pilots stationed with the RAF pose during the Battle of Britain.

Image: Central Press/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

A group of pilots of the No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron RAF stand by the tail elevator of one of their Hawker Hurricane Mark Is at an airfield in Middlesex.

Image: S A Devon/ IWM via Getty Images

A group of pilots of the No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron RAF after a fighter sortie.

Image: S A Devon/ IWM via Getty Images)

A group of Polish Royal Air Force navigators are briefed before a mission.

Image: Maeers/Fox Photos/Getty Images

A group of Polish pilots balance on the wing of a Wellington bomber to watch aircraft take off from a British RAF base.

Image: A. J. O'Brien/Fox Photos/Getty Images

Polish airmen review a map in front of an Anson bomber during training at an RAF base.

Image: A. J. O'Brien/Fox Photos/Getty Images

Polish airmen receive training at an RAF station.

Image: A. J. O'Brien/Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Three Polish fighter pilots who received decorations from the Polish premier in exile General Sikorski for their services to a Polish wing of the RAF.

Image: Keystone/Getty Images

Polish airmen with dogs at an RAF base.

Image: Express/Getty Images

Air Vice-Marshal H.W.L. Saunders decorates Wing-Commander Gabszeqicz with the Distinguished Service Order.

Image: Planet News Archive/SSPL/Getty Images

By the end of the war there were 15 Polish squadrons operating from Britain, with 19,400 men serving in the RAF and the Polish Air Force. In contributing to the defeat of the Nazis, they received heavy casualties, with 1,903 killed in action.

Polish airmen were eligible for medals from both the British government and the Polish government in exile. The Polish Virtuti Militari was equivalent to the British Distinguished Service Order and awarded 1,125 times. The Cross of Valor was awarded 3,122 times, sometimes to the same person more than once.

The British Distinguished Service Order (DSO) was awarded to four Polish pilots, the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) was awarded 57 times and the Distinguished Flying Medal 16 times. One Polish airman was awarded the Master of the British Empire (MBE) and another was made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE).

After the war many stayed in Britain. A few went back to Poland, but by the end of the war it was under Soviet control and they faced an uncertain future there.

American-born Poles who served with the RAF are transferred to the United States Army Air Force at a ceremony at the United States Army recruiting office in London.

Image: Planet News Archive/SSPL/Getty Images

General Wladyslaw Sikorski presents a Polish fighter pilot with Poland's highest honor, the Virtuti Militari.


Account of Trip From Nov. 1942 to Mar. 1945 [ edit | edit source ]

Sailed from New York, N.Y., 2 November 1942
Arrived Casablanca, French Marrocco, 18 November 1942
Left Casablanca, 29 November 1942
Arrived Norfolk, Virginia, 11 December 1942

Arrived New Port News, VA, 24 December 1942
Sailed 27 December 1942
Arrived Cristobal, C.Z., 2 January 1943
Sailed 6 January 1943
Arrived Noumea, New Caledonia, 27 January 1943
Sailed 28 January 1943
Arrived Brisbane, Australia, 31 January 1943
Sailed 2 February 1943
Arrived Sydney, Australia, 3 February 1943
Sailed 10 February 1943
Arrived Pago Pago, Samoa, 16 February 1943
Sailed 17 February 1943
Arrived Honolula, T.H. 23 February 1943
Sailed 24 February 1943

Sailed from San Francisco, 26 March 1943
Arrived Los Angeles, Calif., 27 March 1943
Sailed 30 March 1943
Arrived Wellington, N.Z., 17 April 1943
Sailed 19 April 1943
Arrived Melbourne, Australia, 24 April 1943
Sailed 26 April 1943
Arrived Bombay, India, 11 May 1943
Sailed 17 May 1943
Arrived Melbourne, Australia, 1 June 1943
Sailed 4 June 1943
Arrived Wellington, N.Z. 9 June 1943
Arrived Los Angeles, Calif., 25 June 1943

Sailed from Los Angeles, Calif., 27 July 1943
Arrived Wellington, N.Z., 12 August 1943
Sailed 14 August 1943
Arrived Melbourne, Australia, 19 August 1943
Sailed 21 August 1943
Arrived Fremantle, Australia, 26 August 1943
Sailed 30 August 1943
Arrived Bombay, India, 10 September 1943
Sailed 19 September 1943
Arrived Melbourne, Australia, 4 October 1943
Sailed 6 October 1943
Arrived Bora Bora, S.I., 14 October 1943
Sailed 15 October 1943
Arrived Los Angeles, Calif., 24 October 1943

Sailed San Pedro, Calif., 10 November 1943
Arrived Bora Bora, S.I., 19 November 1943
Sailed 26 November 1943
Arrived Fermantle, Australia, 11 December 1943
Sailed 14 December 1943
Arrived Bombay, India, 26 December 1943
Sailed 31 December 1943
Arrived Melbourne, Australia, 16 January 1944
Sailed 20 January 1944
Arrived Bora Bora, S.I. 29 January 1944
Sailed 29 January 1944
Arrived San Pedro, Calif., 8 February 1944

Sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 14 March 1944
Arrived San Francisco, Calif., 15 March 1944
Sailed 20 March 1944
Arrived Noumea, New Caledonia, 5 April 1944
Sailed 7 April 1944
Arrived Milne Bay, New Guinea, 11 April 1944
Sailed 13 April 1944
Arrived Beli Beli, Good Enough Island, 13 April 1944
Sailed 14 April 1944
Arrived Noumea, New Caledonia, 19 April 1944
Sailed 20 April 1944
Arrived San Francisco, Calif., 5 May 1944

Sailed from San Francisco, 12 May 1944
Arrived Balboa, C.Z., 21 May 1944
Sailed 22 May 1944
Arrived Colon, C.Z., 22 May 1944
Sailed 23 May 1944
Arrived New York, 28 May 1944

Sailed from New York, 16 June 1944
Arrived Liverpool, 27 June 1944
Sailed 28 June 1944
Arrived Belfast, Northern Ireland, 29 June 1944
Sailed 2 July 1944
Arrived New York, 12 July 1944

Sailed from New York, 11 August 1944
Arrived Liverpool, England, 22 August 1944
Sailed 16 August 1944
Arrived New York, 5 September 1944

Sailed from New York, 29 September 1944
Arrived Southampton, England, 9 October 1944
Sailed 13 October 1944
Arrived New York, 25 October 1944

Sailed from New York, 5 February 1945
Arrived Le Harve, France, 16 February 1945
Sailed 20 February 1945
Arrived Soughampton, England, 21 February 1945
Sailed 22 February 1945
Arrived New York, 5 March 1945

Sailed from New York, 15 March 1945
Arrived L Havre, France 27 March 1945
Sailed 30 March 1945
Arrived Soughampton, England, 31 March 1945
Sailed 31 March 1945
Arrived New York, 11 April 1945

Sailed from New York, 24 April 1945
Arrived Le Havre, France, 6 May 1945
Sailed 8 May 1945
Arrived Southampton, 9 May 1945
Anchored out 10,11,12 May 1945
Sailed 13 May 1945
Arrived Boston, Mass., 23 May 1945

Sailed from Boston, Mass., 30 May 1945
Arrived Le Havre, France, 7 June 1945
Sailed 9 June 1945
Arrived New York, 17 June 1945

Sailed from New York, 21 June 1945
Arrived in Le Havre, France, 29 June 1945
Sailed from Le Havre, France, 2 July 1945
Arrived New York, 10 July 1945

Sailed 14 July 1945 from New York
Arrived Le Harve, France, 29 July 1945
Sailed from Le Havre, 25 July 1945
Arrived New York, 2 August 1945

Sailed from New York, 16 October 1945
Arrived Straights of Gilbralter, 24 October 1945
Arrived Marseille, France, 26 October 1945
Sailed from Marseille, France, 27 October 1945
Sailed through Straights of Gibraltar, 29 October 1945
Arrived New York, 6 November 1945

Sailed from New York, 12 December 1945
Reached Panama, 17 December 1945
Sailed from Panama, 18 December 1945
Reached Pearl Harbor, 30 December 1945
Sailed from Pearl Harbor, 1 January 1946
Reach Nagaya, Japan, 11 January 1946
Left Nagaya, Japan 19 January 1946
Reached Seattle, Wash., 5 February 1946

Sailed from Seattle, 26 February 1946
Reached San Francisco, 28 February 1946
Left San Francisco, 2 March 1946
Reached Guam, 19 March 1946

Operation Torch [ edit | edit source ]

Embarking 5,600 army troops and sailors, on 2 November 1942 Hermitage departed New York with her skipper acting as convoy commodore. Six days later the North African invasion began, and Hermitage on 10–25 November debarked her passengers at Casablanca to participate in the momentous campaign. Returning to Norfolk, Virginia 11 December, Hermitage next headed for the Pacific with nearly 6,000 passengers embarked. After embarking and debarking passengers at Balboa, Noumea, Brisbane, Sydney, Pago Pago, and Honolulu, the former luxury liner put in at San Francisco 2 March 1943.

Pacific operations [ edit | edit source ]

Hermitage's next swing westward, begun 27 March took her to Wellington, New Zealand Melbourne and Bombay. At Bombay she embarked some 707 Polish refugees, including nearly a hundred children, for a voyage back to California which ended 25 June. In the next year Hermitage made three similar cruises through the South Pacific, with battle-bound marines, soldiers and sailors, civilians, and Chinese and Indian refugees among her diversified passengers. Hermitage reached New York 28 May from the South Pacific via Noumea, Goodenough Island, and the Panama Canal.

Operation Overlord [ edit | edit source ]

Departing New York 16 June 1944 with over 6,000 passengers, most of them bound for the invasion of Europe just begun at Normandy, Hermitage sailed to Liverpool and Belfast to debark the troops before returning to New York 12 July. From then until the end of the war she made 10 more such voyages, principally to Le Havre, to bring replacements to the European theater and transport wounded Allied soldiers and prisoners of war back to the States. V-E Day, 8 May 1945, found Hermitage part of the celebration in Le Havre harbor as Allied ships greeted the end of 6 years of war with a cacophony of bells, whistles and sirens screaming through air illuminated by hundreds of signal flares and rockets.

After hostilities [ edit | edit source ]

War's end did not mean the end of Hermitage's duty as she continued to cross the Atlantic, this time bringing veterans home through December. Departing New York 12 December, the well-traveled transport sailed to Nagoya, Japan to embark some 6,000 homeward bound veterans and return to Seattle 4 February 1946. Assigned to the San Francisco-Marianas run for Operation Magic Carpet, the return of thousands of Pacific troops, she made three further voyages before decommissioning at San Francisco 20 August 1946.

Summary of WWII service [ edit | edit source ]

While serving with the Navy, the former luxury liner had sailed approximately 230,000 miles and transported 129,695 passengers, including American, British, Australian, French, and Netherlands fighting men as well as Chinese, American, Polish, and British civilians and German and talian prisoners.

The first Bombe is completed

Bombe replica, Bletchley Park, UK

Built as an electro-mechanical means of decrypting Nazi ENIGMA-based military communications during World War II, the British Bombe is conceived of by computer pioneer Alan Turing and Harold Keen of the British Tabulating Machine Company. Hundreds of allied bombes were built in order to determine the daily rotor start positions of Enigma cipher machines, which in turn allowed the Allies to decrypt German messages. The basic idea for bombes came from Polish code-breaker Marian Rejewski's 1938 "Bomba."


The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to &ldquoall persons born or naturalized in the United States,&rdquo which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.&rdquo By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.

14 November 1943 - History

The decade would hold a celebration of the nation's 100th birthday barely ten years after a Civil War, but most remarkable was not the anniversary, but the intellectual and industrial progress that the USA would make. By 1876, the genius of its inventors was being noticed around the world. Previously thought as a former rube colony well beneath the nations of Europe, the United States was beginning to show not only their equality, but that soon they would surpass them.

More 1800s

Baseball History

For the history of baseball, check out our friends at Stat Geek Baseball and Baseballevaluation where they put the stats from 1871 to today in context.

Chief Sitting Bull, (Tatonka-I-Yatanka) Hunkpapa Sioux, circa 1885.

Timeline Book

ABH Travel Tip

The Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, although the 2nd true world's fair held in the U.S.A., was the first large scale expo hosted within the nation that announced its coming of age to foreign nations. This would continue with the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, the San Francisco World's Fairs of 1915 & 1939, the New York World's Fairs of 1939-1940 & 1964-1965 through the smaller fairs of New Orleans 1984. Two buildings remain of the Centennial Exhibition, the magnificent Memorial Hall, the art gallery of the fair, and now housing the new location of the Please Touch Museum, which includes a model of the fair in the basement and tours about the event, and the Oregon Building, which houses a restaurant.

Photo above: Looking down the main avenue of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition with Memorial Hall in the left background. Published by James Cremer 1876.

Photo above: President U.S. Grant. Courtesy National Archives. Right: Valley of the Yellowstone, 1871, by William Henry Jackson, Hayden Survey. Courtesy Library of Congress.

U.S. Timeline - The 1870s

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July 15, 1870 - The last former state of the Confederacy, Georgia, is readmitted into the Union, and the Confederated States of America is officially dissolved.

November 1, 1870 - The National Weather Service, known as the Weather Bureau, makes its first official meteorological forecast. "High winds at Chicago and Milwaukee. and along the Lakes."

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January 17, 1871 - Andrew Smith Hallidie patents an improvement in endless wire and rope ways for cable cars. Regular service on the Clay Street Hill cable railway in San Francisco would begin September 1, 1873.

October 27, 1871 - New York politician Boss Tweed is arrested. Thomas Nast, German-American caricaturist, who had skewed the Boss Tweed ring in his cartoons, is credited with an important role in his downfall.

November 17, 1871 - The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the State of New York.

February 20, 1872 - In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art opens.

May 23, 1873 - The first running of the Preakness Stakes horse race, second in the leg of today's Triple Crown, debuts in Baltimore, Maryland in front of a crowd of 12,000. The horse, Survivor, owned by John Chamberlain, won by ten lengths over six other horses in a time of 2:43, winning a victor's purse of $1,850.

September 18, 1873 - An economic depression begins when the New York stock market crashed, setting off a financial panic that caused bank failures. The impact of the depression would continue for five years.

December 15, 1873 - The Women's Crusade of 1873-74 is started when women in Fredonia, New York march against retail liquor dealers, leading to the creation of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. In 1917, this movement would culminate in the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale of liquor in the United States, a ban that would last for sixteen years.

January 1, 1874 - The Bronx is annexed by New York City.

November, 25, 1874 - The U.S. Greenback Party is organized as a political organization by farmers who had been hurt financially in the Panic of 1873.

December 4, 1875 - New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and migrates to Cuba, then Spain. He would be captured and returned to New York authorities on November 23, 1876.

January 31, 1876 - Original date issued by the United States government ordering all Native Americans onto a system of reservations throughout the western lands of the United States. Although the date would be extended by President Grant, this issue would lead to the Great Sioux War of 1876.

November 10, 1876 - The Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition closes its exposition period after 159 days, not including Sundays, with a paid and free attendance of 8,095,349. Over 9.9 million people, including staff, saw the first large scale world's fair in the United States jump the United States into the upper echelon of nations with its exhibits and inventions. This exhibition was also credited with healing many of the wounds still left by the Civil War, binding the nation together with the effort.

September 1, 1877 - Frederick Douglass, the ex-slave civil rights leader and abolitionist moved into his house, Cedar Hill, in the Anacostia section of Washington, D.C.

January 6, 1878 - American poet, Carl Sandburg, is born. He would win two Pulitzer prizes for poetry and one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln.

January 28, 1878 - In New Haven, Connecticut, the first commercial telephone exchange is opened.

Party Divisions of the House of Representatives, 1789 to Present

Political parties have been central to the organization and operations of the U.S. House of Representatives. As this chart demonstrates, the efforts of the founding generation to create a national government free of political parties proved unworkable. Parties demonstrated their worth in the House very quickly in organizing its work and in bridging the separation of powers. Within a decade House parties absorbed the various state and local factions.

The chart below emphasizes the traditional two-party structure of the United States, with third-party affiliations in the Other column. Additionally, the numbers of Delegates and Resident Commissioners are reflected in the “Del./Res.” Column for reference. This chart does not address the party affiliation of these Members as they do not hold voting privileges on the House Floor.

The figures presented are the House party divisions as of the initial election results for a particular Congress. This means that subsequent changes in House membership due to deaths, resignations, contested or special elections, or changes in a Member’s party affiliation are not included.


POUGHKEEPSIE, NY &ndash Princeton University professor Cornel West will deliver the lecture &ldquoThe End(s) of Oligarchy: On Spirituality, Citizenship, and the New Democracy&rdquo on Wednesday, November 30 , at 8:00pm in the Vassar College Chapel. Free and open to the public, tickets are required to attend this event and are available on a first come first served basis at the information desk in the College Center of Vassar&rsquos Main Building, Monday-Friday from 9:00am-4:00pm. [Note: the information desk will be closed November 23 -25 for the Thanksgiving holiday.]

The Class of 1943 University Professor at Princeton University, Dr. West has written nineteen books -- most notably Race Matters and Democracy Matters , as well as his new memoir Brother West: Living and Loving Out Loud -- and edited thirteen others. West graduated Magna Cum Laude from Harvard University in three years and obtained his M.A. and PhD. in philosophy at Princeton. He has also taught at Union Theological Seminary, Yale University, Harvard, and the University of Paris.

West co-hosts the nationally syndicated public radio program Smiley & West on the PRI network, and on television he appears frequently on Real Time with Bill Maher , The Colbert Report , CNN , C-Span , and The Tavis Smiley Show . He made his film debut in The Matrix , and was the commentator (with Ken Wilbur) on the official DVD trilogy. He has appeared in over 25 documentaries and films including Examined Life, Call & Response, Sidewalk and Stand .

West has also made three spoken word albums including Never Forget: A Journey of Revelations , which included collaborations with Prince, Jill Scott, Andre 3000, Talib Kweli, KRS-One, and the late Gerald Levert. His recent spoken word interludes were featured on Terence Blanchard&rsquos Choices (which won the Grand Prix in France for the Best Jazz Album of the Year in 2009), The Cornel West Theory band&rsquos recording Second Rome , and Raheem DeVaughn&rsquos Love & War: Masterpeace .

Co-sponsors of this event include the Vassar Association of Class Activists, Vassar Student Association, the departments and programs of Africana Studies, American Culture, Religion, Political Science, and Sociology, and the offices of the President, Dean of the College, Dean of the Faculty, Campus Life and Diversity, and Religious and Spiritual Life.

Directions to the campus can be found at .

Individuals with disabilities requiring accommodations or information on accessibility should contact the Campus Activities Office at (845) 437-5370 . Without sufficient notice appropriate space and/or assistance may not be available.

Vassar College is a highly selective, coeducational, independent, residential, liberal arts college founded in 1861.


  1. Shipton

    Yeah ... Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you have to move.

  2. Tajind

    I apologize, it doesn't quite come close to me. Who else can say what?

  3. Gara

    into the furnace

  4. Digar

    Wonderful, good idea

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