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The Adena Giant Revealed: Profile of Prehistoric Mound Builders

The Adena Giant Revealed: Profile of Prehistoric Mound Builders



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In the 1800s, reports began to surface of the discovery of very large skeletal remains in the burial mounds of North America. These skeletons were described as reaching seven to eight feet (2.4 meters) in length, with a lower frequency of discoveries spanning nine to 11 feet (3.3 meters) in length, and having very large skulls and gigantic lower jawbones.

Historians often detailed these remains in early local historical records, such as the following from Cass County, Michigan:

“It was a mound about thirteen feet high…. the diameter of its base was about fifty feet…Portions of the skeletons were in a good state of preservation. The femur, or thigh bone, of one of the males, which Dr Bonine has now in his possession, is of great size and indicates that its owner must have been at least seven feet in height”

-Alfred Matthews, History of Cass County, Michigan 1882

The Criel Mound in South Charleston West Virginia, photo courtesy of authors © Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer. The 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical mound, is the second largest of its type in West Virginia.

Accounts of Exceptional Burial Mounds

Antiquarians also wrote about the anthropology of the tall ones in prehistoric mounds. The following is an account from Chillicothe, Ill. from American Antiquarian, Vol 2 No 1 (1879):

“A recent exploration of a mound near this place resulted in some interesting discoveries…The form was large, the jaws massive, and the teeth perfect.”

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As is well known, 19 th and early 20 th century newspapers frequently ran stories of gigantic skeletons found throughout the country. The following report from Portsmouth, Ohio was run by the News Herald on January 3, 1895:

“Bridge Carpenters on the N. & W. R. found a gigantic skeleton while excavating, three miles east of Portsmouth, a few days ago. The skeleton measured, 7 feet, 4 inches…”

In the 1880s, the Eastern Mound Division of the Smithsonian discovered a number of gigantic skeletons in their wanton destruction of North American tumuli. The 12 th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology documents numerous gigantic skeletons found by Smithsonian agents:

“Near the original surface (of the mound)… lying at full length upon its back, was one of the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet.”

“In the center (of mound 11), 3 feet below the surface, was a vault 8 feet long and 3 feet wide. In the bottom of this…lay a skeleton fully 7 feet long…”

“The length from the base of the skull to the bones of the toes was found to be 7 feet 3 inches. It is probable, therefore, that this individual when living was 7.5 feet high.”

Pre-excavation view of the Adena Mound, located in Chillicothe, Ohio, United States, northwest of downtown. The type site for the Adena culture, the site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, even though the mound was removed decades ago. It was excavated in 1901.

Extraordinary Skeletal Features

The twentieth century saw the rediscovery of the ancient giants by mainstream archeologists. Working with Charles Snow, William S Webb (University of Kentucky) positively identified the unique skeletal features noted by the early sources with the people of the Adena Mound Building Culture. Webb and Snow’s analysis of the anthropology of Adena was described in The Adena People Number 1 (1945) and number 2 (co-written with Raymond S Baby, 1957):

“The forehead is typically a prominent one, bordered below by fairly prominent brow ridges….The characteristic bulge of the upper and lower jaws (alveolar prognathism) is moderate in projection…Usually the cheek bones are not only of large size in themselves but they have a forward and lateral prominence…” (Webb Snow and Baby, 1957)

In addition to these strong features, Webb Snow and Baby (1957) remarked upon the “great width of the bony chin, formed by bilateral eminences”.

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The typical Adena crania were extremely high vaulted (brachycephalic):

“Approximately 89% of the adult males, 92% of the adult females are brachycephalic.” (Webb and Snow 1945)

In their report on the Dover mound in Kentucky, Webb and Snow noted that the Adena crania to represent the “highest skull vaults reported anywhere in the world” (Webb and Snow, The Dover Mound . 1959) Cephalic indices measured for Adena range from 89 to 100. (Webb, Snow and Baby 1957)

The Adena People practiced artificial flattening of the occipital region, which added height to the cranial vault. This practice merely enhanced congenital features:

“…those skulls with slight or no deformation (undeformed) present similar proportions”.(Webb and Snow, 1945)

“It is likely that many, if not most, of the skull characteristics so typical of Adena are of genetic nature…” (Webb, Snow and Baby 1957)

The “Wolf Plains Group”, aA Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and nine circular enclosures. Located a few miles to the northwest of Athens, Ohio, USA.

Beings “of Large Proportions”

At the Dover Mound, Webb encountered a seven foot (two meters) tall skeleton with these notable Adena features (burial 40):

“…the remains of burial 40 is one of the largest known to Adena; the skull-foot field measurement is 84 inches (7 feet).” ( Webb and Snow, 1959)

In1958, Don Dragoo of the Carnegie Museum uncovered the remains of an individual “of large proportions” in a subsurface tomb at the lowest strata of the Cresap Mound in West Virginia. Burial 54 as described by Dragoo in Mounds for the Dead (1963):

“When measured in the tomb his length was approximately 7.04 feet. All the long bones were heavy and possessed marked eminences for the attachment of muscles.”

Dragoo described the unique traits of Adena, including the “protruding and massive chin” with “prominent bilateral protrusions”, as well as “individuals approaching seven feet in height”. (Dragoo, 1963)

It is important to note that in considering this information from Webb, Snow, and Dragoo, regularly occurring gigantic members are not the only unique features of the Adena People:

“Not only were these Adena People tall but also the massiveness of the bones indicates powerfully built individuals. The head was generally big with a large cranial capacity.” (Dragoo, 1963)

Setting the Standard for Giantology

Working in the 20 th century, Webb, Snow and Dragoo essentially corroborated the findings of the earlier antiquarians and linked the gigantic skeletal types with a specific culture. Following this, the pioneering research of Ross Hamilton and the late Vine Deloria set a scholarly standard for giantology, synchronizing the Native and archeological records in Hamilton’s unsurpassed work, A Tradition of Giants .

And yet, in spite of this tradition of rediscovery, no satisfactory reconstruction of an Adena giant has ever been undertaken. While we are routinely reminded of the dimensions of the giants in volumes reprinting multiple hundreds of accounts of their discovery, we have been denied imagery representing their living form. While numerous other anomalies (such as the Paracas and “Starchild” crania) have received due attention, the gigantic Adena have remained shrouded in mystery. In May of 2015, the authors undertook a joint venture with the legendary Marcia K Moore to remedy this situation.

Artist Fills in Gaps in Hidden History

Marcia is best known as the premier artist recreating the living images of the elongated crania of Peru, associated with the Paracas People. Her work has appeared in the books of Brien Foerster and L.A. Marzulli and has been featured on the Ancient Aliens TV series, with Marcia herself occasionally appearing on the show. (Ancient Aliens: Alien Evolution)

The skull used for the Adena recreation was that of burial 16 from the Wright Mounds in Kentucky, photographed in figure 25 of The Adena People No1, where it is described as showing “pronounced” deformation. In Skeletal Material from the Wright Site, Montgomery County, Kentucky (1940) H.T.E. Hertzberg noted that the crania of the Wright site featured the large, prognathic lower mandibles (or protruding lower jaw) typical of Adena, and although artificially deformed, the series demonstrated the large congenital features detailed by Webb, Snow and Dragoo:

“…deformed as they are, these crania display a pronounced brachycrany…it may be noticed that four skulls…displaying submedium deformation, also give an average cranial index of over 90%. Thus the inference is that these people would have shown pronounced brachycrany even without deformation…”

Artist’s representation of North American giant. Credit: Marcia K Moore / Ciamar Studio. Visit http://www.marciakmoore.com/giants.html

The dimensions of the Adena giant were derived from several sources with corroborating details. Among these, the authors referenced the hand written field notebook of P. W. Norris, the agent of the Bureau of Ethnology who excavated the Adena mounds at Charleston, West Virginia in 1883 and 1884 (Smithsonian Manuscript, Norris Mound Excavations). Several mounds at Charleston yielded skeletons seven feet (two meters) long. At the Great Smith Mound, Norris encountered a house-like timber structure 12 by 13 feet broad (3.6 by 4 meters) and 6 feet (1.8 meters) high, reaching 10 feet (three meters) at the ridged top.

Within this structure was a “gigantic and prominent personage, surrounded by 5 of his (probably volunteer) warriors…” Norris measured the central burial in situ and described it as “a gigantic human skeleton 7 feet 6 inches in length and 19 inches between the shoulders…”

Elsewhere in the manuscript, this skeleton is regularly referred to as “the giant” or “gigantic" . Significantly, this particular burial was wrapped in bark and covered with a dry clay. This certainly suggests that the in-situ measurements would have been accurate, rather than the product of some type of disarticulation due to the weight of the mound mass, as mainstream sources often claim.

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The measurements provided by Norris are similar to those from several other sources, including this account of a gigantic specimen unearthed by Warren K Moorehead in Ohio, documented in his Primitive Man in Ohio (1892):

“Six feet above these remains was found the partial skeleton of a man almost a giant in size….The breadth across the shoulders, with the bones correctly placed, was nineteen inches…”

The anthropological details of Adena recorded by Webb, Snow and Dragoo and the early historians and antiquarians corroborate Norris’ account and indicate individuals approaching eight feet (2.4 meters) tall. Since a high frequency of reports describe skeletons reaching this height, the data was used by Marcia to formulate the likely dimensions and appearance of an eight-foot-tall Adena in the flesh.

Artist’s representation of the “Adena Giant”, Prehistoric Mound Builders. Visit www.marciakmoore.com

Missing History Comes to Life

Marcia has done more than merely provide a visual for a tall member of a prehistoric population. The Adena giant represents a truly unique form of humankind, which until now has only been suggested by the multitude of newspaper and historical accounts regularly reprinted in the giantology market place. The recreation of a very large member of Webb, Snow and Dragoo’s “unique group of honored dead” provides a glimpse into the distant past, a snapshot from beyond the veil pulled over history by the establishment a century ago.

Marcia is currently working with the authors on a book to be published in 2016 that will feature an extensive set of her recreations of Adena and Adena-like individuals from the burial mounds of North America and around the world. This important visual work will accompany the presentation of 7000 years of obfuscated world history.

Featured image: Main: The Criel Mound in South Charleston West Virginia, photo courtesy of authors © Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer. Inset: Artist’s representation of the “Adena Giant”, Prehistoric Mound Builders. Visit www.marciakmoore.com

By: Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer

For more information, please visit www.alleghenymounds.com/


Adena giants: Profile of prehistoric mound builders

In the 1800s, reports began to surface of the discovery of very large skeletal remains in the burial mounds of North America. These skeletons were described as reaching seven to eight feet (2.4 meters) in length, with a lower frequency of discoveries spanning nine to 11 feet (3.3 meters) in length, and having very large skulls and gigantic lower jawbones.

Historians often detailed these remains in early local historical records, such as the following from Cass County, Michigan:

"It was a mound about thirteen feet high. the diameter of its base was about fifty feet. Portions of the skeletons were in a good state of preservation. The femur, or thigh bone, of one of the males, which Dr Bonine has now in his possession, is of great size and indicates that its owner must have been at least seven feet in height"

Accounts of Exceptional Burial Mounds

Antiquarians also wrote about the anthropology of the tall ones in prehistoric mounds. The following is an account from Chillicothe, Ill. from American Antiquarian, Vol 2 No 1 (1879):

"Near the original surface (of the mound). lying at full length upon its back, was one of the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as proved by actual measurement being between 7 and 8 feet."

"In the center (of mound 11), 3 feet below the surface, was a vault 8 feet long and 3 feet wide. In the bottom of this. lay a skeleton fully 7 feet long. "

"The length from the base of the skull to the bones of the toes was found to be 7 feet 3 inches. It is probable, therefore, that this individual when living was 7.5 feet high."


Monday, August 1, 2016

The Eight Traditional European Celebrations of the Seasons

The Wheel of the Year: A look into Europe's ancient traditions and myths, that illuminate her time-honored values.


Indigenous Europeans traditionally celebrate eight holidays whose dates are set by significant positions of the Earth as it revolves around the Sun. These positions are the two Solstices, the two Equinoxes, and the four cross-quarter points in between them. These positions of the Earth signify points in the cycle of the seasons, which in turn were linked with the agricultural lives of our ancestors. Before they created modern technology, the lives of our ancestors literally hung in the balance each year according to the fortunes of the weather and their crops. When your food stores have dwindled down to the corner of your cellar and there are no grocery stores, the rising of the Sun and blossoming of life in the Spring is truly a cause for celebration.

Our European ancestors lived closely in touch with the Earth up until fairly recent times. While Mediterranean and Asian civilizations had long practiced floodplain agriculture that supported large cities, mainland Europeans remained a rural, woodland people running small farms until the Industrial Age. Northern Europe had abundant primary resources, but its cold climate, thick forests and heavily vegetated soils made successful farming a challenge. With the weather changing radically throughout the year, preparation for the future, disciplined work habits and creative innovation were essential. Households tended to be independent, in charge of their own fortunes, and it was sometimes necessary to seek the help and cooperation of neighbors. The seasonal holidays were ideal occasions for such concourse.

Several themes, reflecting European values, are interwoven throughout these celebrations. The need to promote cooperation and unity in the community. The need for careful reflection, assessment, and planning. The need to periodically clean up our refuse and bring order to our lives. The need for frugality, to "save up for a rainy day". And the need to occasionally let go and have fun, to explore, to enjoy the beauty of the Earth, the pleasures of life, and pride in our work and accomplishment. Lost in the madness of the modern world, we would do well to consider the lessons garnered by our forebears.


Imbolc, occuring at the midpoint between the Winter Solstice and the Spring Equinox, on February 2, commemorates the first signs of the coming Spring. The rising Sun begins to turn the tide against the darkness and cold of Winter. Imbolc is the holiday of Brigid, the Goddess of Home and Hearth, of poetry and smithcraft, who brings us fortune for the coming year. The name Imbolc derives from Old Irish words meaning 'the time the sheep's milk comes'. The lactation of ewes in anticipation of birthing is a sign of Spring's awakening. Ewe's milk provided the first fresh nourishment for our ancestors since the onset of Winter. Other signs are buds on trees, early flowers such as primroses and dandelions peeking through the snow, and the emergence of a few hibernating animals to check on the weather, such as the famous groundhog.

A tradition of Imbolc is to make a straw dolly representing Brigid, called a Brideog, to use for various rituals. The dolly is dressed in white cloth and adorned with ribbons, early flowers, stones, or shells, with an especially lovely ornament in place of the heart. Young girls of the village, dressed in white, carry it from house to house to offer blessings and receive gifts. Brideogs are placed in a special bed overnight with white candles lit nearby, blessing the house with health and protection for the coming year. Candles may be lit in each room of the house, to commemorate the growing light of the Sun.

Imbolc is a time of hope and preparation, to dedicate oneself to the coming challenges of the growing season. Time to get one's life in order, to bless the seeds, to ready the tools. Time to clean up and prepare a new start. Winter grows long, life begins to stir.


Ostara is a celebration of the Vernal Equinox and the arrival of Spring in the Northern Hemisphere, on about March 21. The Northern and Southern Hemispheres are equidistant from the Sun and share the light equally. The length of the day, which began growing longer on Yule (the Winter Solstice), equals and will exceed the length of the night. The light and warmth of the day, embodied by the Goddess Eostre, has overtaken the night. She heralds the long-awaited return of Nature's life-giving growing season.

Eostre is the Germanic Goddess of the Spring and Dawn, who returns to Earth on the Vernal Equinox with a bunny companion and magical eggs that regenerate life. The Easter Bunny has the same German origin. A primary festivity is decorating eggs, symbols of fertility and reawakened life, which will be exchanged to bring blessings of abundance. New clothing is worn, and pastel colors are the fashion.

Ostara is also associated with balance and harmony, a time for cleaning up and getting back in touch with the Earth. Balance is symbolized by the Equilateral Cross. A custom originating with the Saxons is to eat hot buns marked with a cross, to honor Eostre. It is time to plant the seeds, to start a garden, to prepare the season's crop.


Beltane, of May 1, also known as May Day, is a celebration of fertility, sensuality and the coming of Summer. For the Celts, Beltane represents the midpoint of the year, the beginning of the Light half. Beltane is an 'in between' time when the veil separating the spirit world is thin, and magic can be found in bonfires, sacred waters, and visiting faeries. A central event of Beltane is the Maypole dance, wherein brightly colored, interwoven ribbons symbolize the fecundity of early Summer, adding energy to it.

A variety of merry traditions are practiced on Beltane. Great ceremonial fires are lit on the eve, while all domestic fires are extinguised and will be restarted from its embers. Young couples in love jump over the fires to bring good fortune, and herds of livestock are passed between them before being taken to Summer grazing grounds, to be blessed with health and protection. Ceremonial bathing in natural waters or sprinkling in dew collected before dawn, can bring health, beauty and happiness for the year.

A May Queen and consort are chosen to lead marches and announce the games. Wishes made to the faeries at a Hawthorn tree may be granted, and offerings of sweet bread and drinks are left for them on doorsteps and roadways. Flowers are gathered in May baskets to be presented to loved ones, or used to decorate the Maypole and revelers' clothing for the dances. It is a time to set aside one's inhibitions, to run wild and play joyfully amidst the Earth's flourishing beauty.


Litha, on about June 21, is a celebration of the Summer Solstice. The Northern Hemisphere is tilted closest to the Sun, the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky, and we have our longest day of the year. The Sun's arc then begins to fall, as the slow journey toward Yule begins. In Celtic tradition, the Holly King of the waning Sun, associated with the harvest and the wisdom of preparing for the future, now defeats and replaces the Oak King of the waxing Sun who has ruled since Yule.

Litha traditions include holding a fire festival, enjoying the first fruits of the growing season, and consummating love matches through marriage. Balefires made of hay are lit across the country. Set against the sky on hilltops, they are kept burning throughout the day, giving protection against evil spirits associated with the downturn of the Sun. As at Beltane, jumping campfires will bring you good fortune.

Fresh fruits and vegetables, particularly strawberries, are gathered for a feast, along with wild herbs and plants having ritual or medicinal purposes. Honey from beehives is harvested and made into honey wine, Mead. The Full Moon closest to Litha is traditionally called the Mead Moon, from whence we get the term Honeymoon. Litha is a propitious time to have a wedding. It's an occasion to enjoy the outdoors with family, to have a picnic and barbecue.


Lughnasadh, also known as Lammas, is an August 1 celebration of the first harvest of the season, particularly the golden bounty of wheat and bread. Lugh is the Celtic God of the Sun and Rain, and of crafts and agriculture. His blessing will bring you a bountiful Autumn crop. The first grain produce of the year is eaten on Lughnasadh it's bad luck to eat it before now.

A tradition of Lughnasadh is to shape the first bread as a dolly and ritually sacrifice it, as death is an essential part of the cycle of rebirth. Another tradition is to gather bilberries if the bilberries are bountiful then the crop will be also. Lughnasadh is an auspicious time for handfasting, trial marriages that last for a year and a day. Handfasts give young couples an opportunity to get to know one another before fully committing to marriage.

Great craft fairs were held on Lughnasad, gaily decorated with bright ribbons. They included sporting contests similar to the Olympic games. The festivities were considered funeral games to honor Lugh's foster-mother Tailte, who died of exhaustion after clearing the plains of Ireland for agriculture. Medieval guilds created elaborate displays of their wares, musicians played lively, and artists performed plays and dances. The Lughnasad festival is an opportunity to make merry before beginning in earnest the grueling work of the harvest.


Mabon commemorates the Autumn Equinox and culmination of the harvest, on about September 23. A fabulous feast will be held, similar to Thanksgiving. The Earth has reached the point in its revolution at which each hemisphere is equidistant from the Sun, and everyone's day and night is the same length. Our days will now become shorter than the nights, as Winter approaches. The majority of the year's crops have been gathered, and it's time to celebrate, take stock, and give thanks for the year's blessings.

Hospitality is in the air on Mabon. Members of family and community, including those less fortunate, are invited to share in the season's bounty. The featured deserts are fruits and gourds, such as apples, grapes, and the wine made from it. A Mabon tradition is to honor the deceased by visiting burial sites, placing upon them an apple or other natural item. It is taboo to pass by a gravesite and not do so. At dinner time, fond stories are told of those who passed away during the year, and of more distant ancestors.


Samhain, of October 31, commemorates the transition from Summer to Winter, and the start of the Celtic New Year. The transition between the Light and Dark halves of the year is a magical time, and so celebrations peak on the night of the last day in October. During this period, the worlds of the living and the dead are in contact and can be traversed. We among the living can be visited by departed loved ones and ancestors, but also by mischievous or downright evil spirits.

Bright sign posts are set outside the home in the form of white candles and jack-o-lanterns, to guide home loved ones and to ward off mischievous spirits. People do not roam outdoors on this night except in disguise, and treats are offered to placate any unwelcomed wanderers from the other world. Inside, a meal and an open place at the dinner table are prepared for family members who have departed.

A central feature of Samhain is a great bonfire tended by Druids. Hearth fires are extinguished from each home and then re-lit from this central fire, as a symbol of village unity. The bonfires serve several other purposes, as well. They are a source of light in the night and a defence against malevolent spirits and the cold of Winter. They are a place to cast tokens such as bones, stones or chestnuts, to divine the future based on how these are rendered by the fire. Finally, the ashes of the bonfire are spread over the fields to bless them for the next season.


Yule, on December 21, is the great occasion, the Winter Solstice, on which the Sun ceases its decline and gladly begins to rise again! It's the shortest day of the year, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted farthest from the Sun and the Sun's arc has reached its nadir, appearing very low in Northern lands. But its rising heralds a new year of life and sustenance on Earth. Most Yule traditions have origins where the decline of the Sun is felt most keenly, in Scandinavia.

Scandinavian Yule traditions include its name, the Yule log, the decorated tree, the wreath, caroling, and Santa Claus. The Yule log, originally a full-sized log set in a long house, is set to burn and smolder for twelve days to add energy to the growing Sun. A hardy evergreen tree is brought indoors and decorated with candles, nuts, berries and other objects that symbolize light and life. Wreaths of evergreen, holly, and ivy are hung, shaped as circles representing the renewed cycle of life and the seasons. Caroling originated as wassailing, in which singers went from house to house addressing their music to the dormant fruit trees, to promote a good crop for the next season. The modern Santa Claus originated from the Norse gods Odin or Thor, who flew across the Northern skies in a chariot pulled by goats and visited homes through the chimney, bearing gifts.

In Celtic tradition, the god of the waning Sun who ascended at Midsummer, the Holly King, is vanquished and replaced on Yule by the god of the waxing Sun, the Oak King. The outgoing Holly King is represented by a wreath of Holly set at the door, while the incoming Oak King is represented by an Oak Yule log brought indoors. The struggle between them is ritually reenacted. This interchanging of their lives represents the necessary cycle of decay and renewal.

Yule is a time to celebrate the blessings we've received, our good fortune to enjoy another year of life. It's a time to strengthen the bonds of family and community through feasting, singing, and exchanging gifts. A time to reflect on how we can improve our lives and relationships, to enjoy the blessings of life in the coming year.


Karshner Mound

Karshner mound native American Mound in the South-Eastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located near the village of Laurelville in Hocking County, is one of Ohios largest remaining mounds that have not been significantly damaged since white settlement. Measuring 100 feet in diameter and 28 meters in height, it lies in the middle of a farm field, but he never cultivated, and the vegetation on the mound, and prevents erosion.
Although archaeological studies have never been conducted on the Mound Karshner, it is believed that it was built by people of the Adena culture, who inhabited the area between 1000 BC and AD 400. This identification is based on its shape and location, Karshner mound is located on the second terrace above salt Creek, and a large number of mounds on the terraces, small streams was built by the Adena. Because of this identification, the mound is considered as a valuable archaeological site and is believed likely to lead many informative exhibits if excavated. In recognition of its archaeological value, it was listed on the National register of historic places in 1974.

collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5, 000 - year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious
The Zaleski Mound Group is a collection of three burial mounds in the village of Zaleski, Ohio, United States. Built by people of the prehistoric Adena
The Criel Mound also known as the South Charleston Mound is a Native American burial mound located in South Charleston, West Virginia. It is one of the
Shrum Mound is a Native American burial mound in the central Ohio city of Columbus. The mound was created around 2, 000 years ago by the Pre - Columbian
Rose Mound was a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of Huntsville in Butler County, the mound was
The Austin Brown Mound also known as the Dwight Fullerton Mound is a subconical Native American mound located northwest of the city of Chillicothe
The David Stitt Mound is a Native American mound near Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio, United States. Located on elevated land at a significant distance
Raleigh Mound 33KN32 is a Native American mound in the village of Fredericktown, Ohio, United States. Built thousands of years ago, the mound is an important
The Great Mound is a massive Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in Section 19 of Madison Township in Butler

Indian Mound Reserve is a public country park near the village of Cedarville, Ohio, United States. Named for two different earthworks within its bounds
Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the village of Newtown in Hamilton County, the mound is
The Short Woods Park Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the Sayler Park neighborhood of the
Mounds State Park is a state park near Anderson, Madison County, Indiana featuring Native American heritage, and ten ceremonial mounds built by the prehistoric
Adena Mound the type site for the Adena culture of prehistoric mound builders, is a registered historic structure, on the grounds of the Adena Mansion
The Conrad Mound Archeological Site is an archaeological site in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located east of Cleves in Hamilton County
Mound Hill also known as the Nelson Gay Mound is an archaeological site in the Bluegrass region of the U.S. state of Kentucky. Located north of Winchester
The Fortner Mounds are a pair of Native American mounds in the central part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located northeast of the city of Pickerington in
The Mound Cemetery Mound is a Native American mound in central Meigs County, Ohio, United States. Located in the eponymous Mound Cemetery, the mound lies

The Arledge Mounds are a pair of Native American mounds in the south central part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located near Circleville in Pickaway County
The Orators Mound is a Native American mound in the western part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Although its cultural affiliation is disputed, it is an important
The Snead Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located off U.S. Route 52 near the community of Neville
The Grave Creek Mound in the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia is one of the largest conical - type burial mounds in the United States, now standing 62
The Kinzer Mound is a Native American mound in Ross County, Ohio, United States. Located outside of the village of South Salem, the mound sits on high
The Luthor List Mound also known as the Burning Mound or the Signal Mound is an archaeological site of the Adena culture in the southern part of
The Horn Mound is a Native American mound in eastern Pickaway County, Ohio, United States. Located near the village of Tarlton, the mound sits along a
The Story Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the Sayler Park neighborhood of the city of Cincinnati
The Jackson Mound is a Native American mound in the south - central portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of Pancoastburg in Fayette County, it

The Carl Potter Mound also known as Hodge Mound II designated 33CH11 - II is a historic Native American mound in southern Champaign County, Ohio, United
Deffenbaugh Mound is a Native American mound in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located northeast of Laurelville in Hocking County, the mound sits
The Hillside Haven Mound designated 33 - Cn - 14 is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located southwest of Oakland

  • collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5, 000 - year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious
  • The Zaleski Mound Group is a collection of three burial mounds in the village of Zaleski, Ohio, United States. Built by people of the prehistoric Adena
  • The Criel Mound also known as the South Charleston Mound is a Native American burial mound located in South Charleston, West Virginia. It is one of the
  • Shrum Mound is a Native American burial mound in the central Ohio city of Columbus. The mound was created around 2, 000 years ago by the Pre - Columbian
  • Rose Mound was a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of Huntsville in Butler County, the mound was
  • The Austin Brown Mound also known as the Dwight Fullerton Mound is a subconical Native American mound located northwest of the city of Chillicothe
  • The David Stitt Mound is a Native American mound near Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio, United States. Located on elevated land at a significant distance
  • Raleigh Mound 33KN32 is a Native American mound in the village of Fredericktown, Ohio, United States. Built thousands of years ago, the mound is an important
  • The Great Mound is a massive Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in Section 19 of Madison Township in Butler
  • Indian Mound Reserve is a public country park near the village of Cedarville, Ohio, United States. Named for two different earthworks within its bounds
  • Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the village of Newtown in Hamilton County, the mound is
  • The Short Woods Park Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the Sayler Park neighborhood of the
  • Mounds State Park is a state park near Anderson, Madison County, Indiana featuring Native American heritage, and ten ceremonial mounds built by the prehistoric
  • Adena Mound the type site for the Adena culture of prehistoric mound builders, is a registered historic structure, on the grounds of the Adena Mansion
  • The Conrad Mound Archeological Site is an archaeological site in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located east of Cleves in Hamilton County
  • Mound Hill also known as the Nelson Gay Mound is an archaeological site in the Bluegrass region of the U.S. state of Kentucky. Located north of Winchester
  • The Fortner Mounds are a pair of Native American mounds in the central part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located northeast of the city of Pickerington in
  • The Mound Cemetery Mound is a Native American mound in central Meigs County, Ohio, United States. Located in the eponymous Mound Cemetery, the mound lies
  • The Arledge Mounds are a pair of Native American mounds in the south central part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located near Circleville in Pickaway County
  • The Orators Mound is a Native American mound in the western part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Although its cultural affiliation is disputed, it is an important
  • The Snead Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located off U.S. Route 52 near the community of Neville
  • The Grave Creek Mound in the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia is one of the largest conical - type burial mounds in the United States, now standing 62
  • The Kinzer Mound is a Native American mound in Ross County, Ohio, United States. Located outside of the village of South Salem, the mound sits on high
  • The Luthor List Mound also known as the Burning Mound or the Signal Mound is an archaeological site of the Adena culture in the southern part of
  • The Horn Mound is a Native American mound in eastern Pickaway County, Ohio, United States. Located near the village of Tarlton, the mound sits along a
  • The Story Mound is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in the Sayler Park neighborhood of the city of Cincinnati
  • The Jackson Mound is a Native American mound in the south - central portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of Pancoastburg in Fayette County, it
  • The Carl Potter Mound also known as Hodge Mound II designated 33CH11 - II is a historic Native American mound in southern Champaign County, Ohio, United
  • Deffenbaugh Mound is a Native American mound in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located northeast of Laurelville in Hocking County, the mound sits
  • The Hillside Haven Mound designated 33 - Cn - 14 is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located southwest of Oakland

Karshner Museum and Center for Culture & Arts –.

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Frank Jamger

America had a long history of population displacements before modern Europeans arrived and built the United States.

There were multiple peoples and cultures who lived in North America before the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Some were relatively advanced, and were evidently destroyed and replaced by later-arriving Amerinds. Some of them were evidently (Proto-) European, and Whites may have arrived in America before the Asiatic Amerinds. Some of the Amerinds encountered by European settlers were partly Caucasian, and their Caucasian roots evidently extend back to antiquity. The "Native Americans" of today are not the original and true natives of North America: they displaced others before modern Europeans displaced (some of) them.

1 . Megalithic stonework culture. Hundreds of ancient megalithic structures exist throughout much of New England, extending into the South. Some are intricately designed and/or made of enormous stones somehow carved from extremely hard granite and raised perfectly into place. Some have sophisticated astronomical designs and orientations. Similar stone structures exist in Western Europe, South America and elsewhere, evincing a megalithic culture that once ranged across the seas. The Amerinds encountered by Whites did not use these stone works and could not account for their origins. The theory that these structures were "colonial root cellars" has innumerable holes. Their scope and complexity suggests a religious or recreational purpose.

2 . Mound-building culture. A great number of ancient mounds and earthworks are found in the Ohio Valley, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River regions the largest being the giant Monk's Mound pyramid at the Cahokia complex in Illinois. The mounds apparently had ceremonial purposes, perhaps as city centers, some evidently having astronomical orientations with one another. Similar mounds found in Europe along with similar tools and pottery, as well as skulls, relate this culture to Europe's ancient Beaker people (associated with Stonehenge). America's mound-building culture had several stages, including the Adena and Hopewell, that came and went suddenly. Within the mounds, many skeletons of large stature with Caucasoid skull types have been excavated. Amerinds encountered by settlers, who had little knowledge of the mounds, have legends of enemy "giants" destroyed in battle in the region, and there is corroborating archaeological evidence. See Allegheny/Adena "Giants", below.

3 . Michigan Copper mining. Enormous quantities of copper were mined in the Great Lakes area in ancient times, and evidently transported down the Mississippi River to the Poverty Point mound complex, where it was processed into ingots. Most of this copper is absent from North America, and curiously at this time Europe used far more copper than can be accounted for by its own mines, indicating transatlantic shipment. Analysis of copper ingots from an ancient shipwreck off Turkey revealed them to be highly pure, consistent with Michigan copper and not with European sources. The Amerinds encountered by settlers didn't use metal tools.

4. Anasazi Chacoan culture. The Anasazi Chaco Canyon-centered culture of the U.S. Southwest had sophisticated stone masonry architecture far more advanced than that of previous and subsequent Amerinds of the region. Their buildings and art had astronomical orientations, and the layout of their towns may have reflected astronomical patterns. They utilized artifacts and symbols, such as spirals and swastikas, similar to that of ancient European cultures such as the Celts and Vinca. A portion of its population, perhaps the elite element, was destroyed in violent ethnic conflict their buildings becoming defensive toward the end.

5 . Windover bog people. This 8,000 year old settlement in Florida "exhibited a civilization far beyond what had been previously believed that ancient Indians in North America and Florida would have shown", including finely woven cloth, tools, a pestle and mortar. Their DNA includes Proto-European Haplotype X it "looked European" according to Dr. Lorenz of the Coriell Institute.

6 . Solutrean-Clovis culture. Pre-/Clovis culture rock tools and carvings, dated 11-26,000 years ago, are found concentrated along the Eastern U.S. that are similar to Solutrean culture counterparts found in West Europe from about the same time, indicating transatlantic passage. Animal carvings similar to Solutrean have also been found. Glaciers and ice floes spanned the northern Atlantic Ocean for much of this time, facilitating ocean passage along the ice edge. Also, transatlantic voyage in ancient reed boats was proven possible by the Ra expeditions of Thor Heyerdahl. The oldest Clovis sites are near the Northeast coast, and Clovis rocks in cache sites to the west were evidently moved from the east. Clovis sites are rarer toward the Western U.S., and scarce in Siberia. In fact, there is hardly any sign of human activity in the Beringia region at/prior to the time of the first Clovis sites in the Eastern U.S.. Clovis sites are found in regions where megaliths, mound constructions, and European-linked DNA are also concentrated (see below).

The Solutrean Solution--Did Some Ancient Americans Come from Europe?
http://www.cabrillo.edu/

7 . DNA Haplogroup X2. The X2a branch of Proto-European DNA Haplogroup X2 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast North America X2 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south and west via the St Laurence River. X2a is most concentrated among Algonquians, whose language has also been linked to ancient Europeans (see below). The small pocket of X2e2 in Russian Altai is not ancestral to Amerind X2a.

8 . DNA Haplogroup R1. Proto-European DNA Haplogroup R1 has high frequency among Amerinds in Northeast and Eastern North America R1 being nearly absent in East Asia. This indicates ancient European migration to America across the Atlantic, arriving in Northeast Canada and dispersing south. As with X2a, R1 is most concentrated among among Algonquians, most of all the Caucasoid-looking Chippewa (Ojibwa), also associated with the ancient copper miners. More broadly, R1(b) is linked to an ancient seafaring, stone-working culture, that evidently spread out from the Mediterranean Sea to the Americas (see below) and the Pacific.

Solutrean hypothesis: genetics, the mammoth in the room Y Chromosome section.
https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/17123/SH%20Mammoth%20in%20the%20Room%20FINAL%20with%20figures.pdf
Distribution of Y Chromosomes Among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan
Population History Figure 2b. Frequency of Haplogroup R in North America.
http://usmex.ucsd.edu/assets/022/10143.pdf
K = 26 admixture analysis of Amerindians and Mestizos.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2013/10/27/k-26-admixture-analysis-of-amerindians-and-mestizos/
Genetic Evidence for Paleolithic Exploration of the Americas by Europeans during the Ice Age.
https://grahamhancock.com/harveyb1/
Eske Willerslev is an anti-White propagandist.
https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2015/02/06/eske-willerslev-is-an-anti-white-propagandist/

9 . Allegheny/Adena "Giants". Ancient large skeletons associated with Adena mound-builders and related cultures have been found across the Ohio Valley, the South, and Northeast America. Copper attire, armor, jewelry and tools are typically found with them. Many Amerind tribes have legends of White "giants", and their existence was formerly well known and accepted by American scholars, including Abraham Lincoln but a concerted effort has been made to dismiss the evidence. These skeletons were not only large, but heavy set with Proto-European type skulls (see below), distinguishing them from Amerinds of their era. Amerind legend reports an Allegewi tribe of "giants" whom they massacred in warfare, a remnant driven into New England. The legend is corroborated by mass killing sites of large skeletons. Later grave sites indicate that the Allegewi survived for centuries as an elite ethnic within the Adena and later Hopewell cultures.

See also the sources for the next section.

10 . Proto-European skulls. Skulls of the Allegheny "giants" discussed above and other ancient skulls found in North America have Proto-European characteristics that distinguish them from Amerinds. In addition to greater size, characteristics include greater vertical and frontal diameter (brachycranic shape), greater cranial capacity, large brow ridges, greater facial angle, a wide jawbone, and double rows of teeth. The skulls are similar to those of the ancient European Beaker People, having Dinaric and Cro-Magnon traits. A 9,400 year old skeleton discovered in Spirit Cave also had a Caucasoid skull.

11 . Language and inscriptions. The Algonquian language has many words, particularly place names, similar to Gaelic and ancient Gaulish, ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques. These people, like the Algonquians, are also carriers of Haplogroups X2 (e.g. Orkney) and R1. This indicates an ancient connection between these peoples. Relationships have also been found between Algonquian and Old Norse, indicating an ancient Scandinavian connection. Many ancient petroglyphs have been found on stones in the North American Northeast and South. Some appear to be Viking runes others, a form of Celtic Iberian ogam, indicating a connection with ancient Celts and seafaring Phoenicians. Some are found in association with the ancient copper mines (see above).

Ancient America section: New England's Celtic Place Names.
http://users.on.net/

12 . Natives of Caucasian appearance. Some Amerinds encountered by White settlers had a Caucasoid-like appearance, indicating some intermixture with Whites in their past. Zuni (Pueblo) and Pima Amerinds of the Chaco Canyon region exhibit Caucasoid traits, as do Algonquians having Haplogroup X2a. The mysterious Mandan tribe of North Dakota was reported to have a sizable minority of blond-haired, blue-eyed individuals, with more advanced technology than other Amerinds. Amerind individuals with Caucasoid-like appearance can be seen in old photos of tribes such as the Ojibwa (R1 carriers) and Shawnee (Algonquian). A mummy having red hair was found in a Kentucky cave in 1813.

13 . Amerind legends of Whites. Many Amerind tribes have legends of Whites in North America's past these legends conclude with an account of how the 'wicked' whites were genocided. The Choctaws, Lenapes, Comanches, Navajos, Shawnees, and others have legends of tall white "giants", called Allegewi, Nahullo, etc., who got in their way and had to be killed off to the last man. The Paiutes remember a nasty red-haired race they called the Si-Te-Cah, whom they managed to trap in Lovelock Cave and massacre. The Cherokees have legends of a pale "moon-eyed people", whom they managed to get rid of.

14 . Whites in South America. There is conclusive evidence of ancient Whites in South America these Whites were likely seafarers who also reached North America. As in the U.S., there is ample evidence of former civilizations more advanced than subsequent Amerinds, e.g. architectural wonders such as Kuellap, Machu Picchu, and Tiwanaku. In SA, there is clear biological evidence of White founders. Local Amerinds of the region, particularly the blondish Chachapoyas, have ancient Caucasian ancestry (Haplogroups I-M26 and R1b), as do their ancient mummies. There are large numbers of distinctly White mummies associated with classic cultures such as the Chachapoya, Nazca, Paracas, Chinchorro, Wari, and Moche. They have red/blond hair types, Caucasoid skull shapes, European blood types A and B, and ancient European DNA (Gravettian and Aurignacian). Found with them are rock carvings, statues, pottery and various art depicting these Whites, having White visages, blue eyes, and beards (lacked by Amerinds). Cultural similarities between ancient Peruvians and Egyptians include pyramids and megalithic architecture, astronomy, mummies, jewelry, skull shaping, art and symbols, and reed boats. A Phoenician rock inscription was found on Palpa Mountain near the surveying marvels of the Nazca desert. Naturally, the physical evidence is mirrored by Amerind legends of White culture-bearers who built these civilizations of Viracocha, Kukulkan, and Quetzalcoatl. Murals found in Chichen Itza, Yucatan indicate the likely fate of these Whites: they depict White men being captured and executed by dark men, a few escaping in boats.

14 Reasons for White Pride in America

It is time for White Americans to fight back, to save our great people and nation.

The mantra of the destroyers.

"The United States was founded on genocide and built on the backs of slaves."

. is nonsense, as I will demonstrate.


1 . The United States, a nation renowned for individual rights and freedom, was created by Whites for their posterity.

The United States, a nation world-renowned for its individual rights, freedom, prosperity and generosity, was built by the ingenuity and work of white pioneers who carried over values and traditions of Europe. The Founding Fathers recognized the U.S. as a White nation and citizenship was originally limited to Whites [1] . It remained about 90% White until the madness of the Cultural Marxist revolution of the 1960's [2] . Our great nation is infinitely more precious than the mere land it sits upon.

2 . White America's excellent technology and prosperity has been a boon to the whole world, including the nonwhites living here.

The great technological and industrial productivity of the United States has benefited not only the nonwhites fortunate enough to live here, but the entire world that dreams of living here. American inventions or major innovations include the sewing machine, typewriter, telephone, records, cameras, television, computers, cars, airplanes, space shuttle, light bulbs, dishwasher, air conditioning, anesthesia, vaccines, hearing aid, defibrillator, heart-lung machine, and the artificial heart [3] . We've shared our technology far and wide, leading to greater prosperity throughout the world. Nonwhites fortunate enough to live here enjoy far higher standards of living than their kin in their own homelands, and they're in no hurry to go back.

3 . White Americans, including our dear ancestors- brave pioneers and settlers, have always been good, caring people.

Contrary to Cultural Marxist propaganda, there certainly was nothing evil about our ancestors, the virtuous White American settlers who built this great nation. We were the same good people then as we are today: honest, compassionate and generous. White Americans donate more to charity than any other people on Earth [4] . We've always been generous to the poor of all races, giving out free cash, medical care, education, and services. The maligned Jim Crow governments provided separate but equal facilities and services to Blacks, paid for by White tax-payers. Even White slave owners were remembered fondly by their former Black slaves for the care they provided [5] . Of course, Blacks and Amerinds receive high rates of welfare, food stamps, housing assistance, etc [6] . We've also cared for the land, protecting huge tracts of wilderness in parks and reserves [7] , and making great strides in minimizing pollution [8] .

4 . There was plenty of open space in America when White Americans came. We built a civilization from scratch upon wilderness.

Amerinds only sparsely occupied the vast area of the United States at the time Whites settled it, the majority of it being empty wilderness. This was partially due to tragic disease epidemics that swept the country, estimated to have killed 90-95% of the population [9] . Amerinds were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers to begin with, having low population density. There were perhaps one to two million Amerinds in the entire U.S. before Europeans settled it [10] there were estimated to be only 20,000 in all New England in 1640 [11] . Whites were mostly just peaceful settlers looking to start a new life for themselves, building homes from scratch on open land. They befriended Amerinds when possible, though sometimes their first contact came in the form of a murderous surprise attack. Whites had no interest in taking over the primitive Amerind settlements, though some forced relocations ultimately became necessary because Amerinds rejected civilization.

5 . Whites didn't want much from the Amerinds, who were Stone Age primitives who had created little of value.

Whites took very little from Amerinds in America beyond bare land. The Amerinds encountered were Stone Age primitives who didn't have metal implements, nor the wheel, nor a written language. What farming they had was primitive, making minimal if any use of fertilizer [12] . No major towns nor industry nor stores of goods were taken from them. They had none.

6 . Amerinds have been well compensated for the loss of land they occupied, which had minimal value at the time.

Amerinds have received huge compensation from the United States for their lost land, as well as ongoing benefits and privileges such as lucrative casinos [13] . The Cherokees were compensated billions of dollars for their "trail of tears" migration [13h] . It's not Whites' fault that much of this money has been squandered. They've also received the benefits of U.S. citizenship including loads of welfare, as well as our technology and civil institutions. Amerinds have also retained or received in compensation much land to this day [14] , their sovereign possessions, in addition to normal properties around the country.

7 . Most Amerinds were not the original, true natives. They replaced - often violently, peoples who preceded them, some of them likely White.

Previous peoples in North America, some relatively advanced, were replaced by the primitive Amerinds encountered by European settlers. Few if any of the so-called "natives" encountered by settlers were the original and true natives of their lands. Some Amerinds are part-White, and some of the displaced or exterminated American peoples of the past were evidently White see 14 Reasons Amerinds not true natives of America. Some aggressive Amerinds, such as the Pequots, Apaches, and Comanches [15] , had long histories of conquering other peoples [16] . At this point in history, there was no international law and people around the world took for granted the right of possession by the strongest. The harsh reality was that weaker Amerinds were going to be ruled by one conqueror or another, and being ruled by Amerinds is no picnic.

8 . Many Amerinds were hostile and cruel, and had a long history of attacking and oppressing other tribes.

Contrary to popular myth, Amerinds tended to be untrustworthy, hostile, oppressive and cruel. They attacked, oppressed and sometimes massacred other tribes. Some tribes, such as the Pequots and Apaches, had a martial culture based on raiding and exploiting other Amerinds these oppressed tribes gladly allied with Whites to fight for their freedom. Many Amerinds had traditions of making fiendish rituals or sports of extracting the maximum possible agony from captives before killing them, and their women were sometimes the most enthusiastic participants. Some of their favorite kinds of torture were skinning alive, cutting off all facial and body parts one by one and putting hot coals in the wounds, roasting people alive on a spigot, and spinning seated women around on sticks impaled in their anuses. They also liked to cut off body parts such as scalps to cannibalize or save as mementos. [16] Our kindly ancestors could hardly be blamed for disliking such folk.

9 . Whites never attempted to genocide Amerinds rather, they were sympathetic toward them. Warfare was usually started by Amerinds.

Amerinds were not genocided. There was no plan nor intention to genocide them. On the contrary, the majority of White Americans were friendly or sympathetic toward Amerinds - those Whites who didn't bear the brunt of their hostilities. Great efforts were made to assimilate them [17] . The myth of the noble Amerind living in harmony with nature is a very old narrative, that author Mark Twain ridiculed in his satirical essay The Noble Red Man (1870) [18] . It is of course true that many Amerinds died of diseases spread unintentionally [9] but the claim that Whites deliberately infected them with blankets is scarcely credible [19] . In fact, President Jefferson launched a 30 year vaccination program for them in 1801. There was sporadic warfare over the centuries between Whites and Amerinds, usually started by a surprise Amerind attack [20] . There are presently about three million Amerinds in the U.S., more than as many as White American settlers encountered [10] , and they still possess massive tracts of territory [14] .

1 0 . The actual number of Amerinds killed by Whites was relatively small.

Against the nonsensical claim of genocide, there are actual estimates of Amerinds killed in warfare and massacres. The U.S. Census Office in 1890 estimated that 45K Amerinds were killed in all warfare with the United States since its founding [21] . William Osborn in The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War. counted 7,193 deaths of Amerinds via "atrocity" by Whites between 1511-1890, versus 9,156 Whites killed in atrocities by Amerinds [22] . In comparison, about 500K Americans were killed during the U.S. conquest of the Confederacy, 1861-5.

11 . Amerinds didn't teach Whites farming and fertilizer use rather, Whites taught them.

Contrary to myth, Whites did not learn how to farm from Amerinds. Amerinds lacked basic agricultural technology that Whites had been using for centuries, such as metal implements for efficient tilling, use of fertilizer, and the wheeled cart. Squanto learned about using fish for fertilizer from Europeans amongst whom he had lived. Whites in Europe and Newfoundland had long been using fish for fertilizing crops, including corn. Amerinds, who were primarily hunter-gatherers, relied on shifting cultivation sites. [23]

12 . Blacks did not build the United States, Whites did. Blacks were only a tiny portion of North and West states, and only menial workers in the South.

Blacks and other nonwhites did not build the United States, in any sense. U.S. civilization from the beginning has been an outgrowth of Europe, not of Africa or anywhere else. The infrastructure, laws, culture, morals and values of traditional America are characteristically European-White. The U.S. was founded by Whites and created by White ingenuity. Blacks were only a tiny percentage (<3%) of the Northern and Western states to 1930 [24] , which developed as advanced as the Southern ones. Even in the South, Black slaves did mostly menial farm labor that the least skilled of Whites could have done, and low-wage free men did after the war. The overall economic benefit of Black slavery to the U.S. was minimal at most [25] .

1 3 . Blacks have been compensated for their mostly menial work. They would only have been worse-off slaves if not brought to America.

Blacks, who have been mostly menial laborers, were compensated for their work with at least basic necessities and care, even as slaves. Low-skilled workers, whether slave or free, whether in Africa or America, generally don't accumulate wealth, anyway. Black Americans would have been slaves in Africa whether Whites had purchased them or not [26] , and were worse off in Africa before being sold by other Blacks to be transported to America. Many White workers at that time were also essentially slaves and sometimes treated worse [27] . Former Black slaves generally recalled their former masters fondly when interviewed about their experiences [5] . Since slavery ended, they have received enormous transfers of wealth from Whites in the form of welfare, special education, law enforcement, pervasive anti-White discrimination in education, hiring and promotions, and healthcare and other insurance costs driven up by blacks, etc. [6,28]

1 4 . The Ethno-Masochist Left is pro-immigration except when it comes to Whites, who were good "immigrants" who gave much and took little.

The hypocrisy of the Left on immigration is astounding. They're all in favor of open borders and immigration for welfare-leeching nonwhites, but say White "immigrants" (pioneers, actually) who built homes from scratch on the American wilderness were wicked. The truth is, White Americans - unlike nonwhites - were super "immigrants" who bore a great gift: civilization. They were independent, hard-working pioneers who took nothing from anyone except in some cases bare land which they developed and made prosperous, and later compensated the former occupants. They did not wish to intrude into Amerind towns, to take over their neighborhoods or leech their sustenance. Modern nonwhite immigrants, on the other hand, intrude into White societies for that very purpose. Instead of civilization, they bring envy, demands for handouts and enforced equality, rampant crime, oppression of women and even Sharia law.


Mounds of the Midwest

There was a time when an estimated 200,000 "earthworks" -- that's the sophisticated term -- marked the land. Only a small fraction has survived the elements, the looter's spade, the farmer's plow, the grind of progress and preposterous theories of their existence.

As it happens, the highest concentration of the most enduring mounds can be toured right here in the Midwest. In what is now Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana, prehistoric cultures built mounds shaped like birds and bears, circles and squares. Some mounds were built along the ridge line of hilltops others were shaped into platform pyramids, perfect cones or avenues of straight lines.

So far as anyone knows, the Mound Builders had no written language they speak now only through what may be studied from the artifacts they left behind. Excavations have revealed sometimes-elaborate burial practices goods and raw materials obtainable only through extensive trade routes even what the builders ate for dinner. The evidence produces the who and what, the when and how.

It just doesn't tell why. Why mounds, especially? Why of earth? Why did they start building them? Why did they stop?

Those questions may never be answered. But archeologists can say that the North American earthworks were built by more than one culture and over many hundreds of years. They have assigned the following names, ballpark dates and characteristics to the Mound Builders:

Adena culture spanned 800 B.C.-100 A.D. and built large, individual cone-shaped mounds, some as high as 60 to 70 feet. They're the ones who left the 65-foot-high Miamisburg Mound the suburbs southwest of Dayton, Ohio, have grown up around it.

Hopewell culture, which has spawned a near cult following among amateur historians, endured 200 B.C.-500 A.D. and is recognized for its construction of large geometric earthworks and a trade network that blanketed the eastern half of North America. The 26-acre Great Circle site at Moundbuilders State Memorial, which these days finds itself in the middle of Newark, Ohio, is one of their legacies.

Effigy Mound culture built earthworks 600 A.D.-1250 A.D. and is recognized, not surprisingly, by the animal-shaped, or effigy, mounds found in what is now Effigy Mounds National Historical Park, on a succession of bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River north of Marquette, Iowa.

Mississippian culture developed into a true civilization, reaching its zenith roughly 1000 A.D.-1400 A.D. at Cahokia, across the Mississippi from St. Louis, just outside of Collinsville, Ill.

Ft. Ancient culture spanned 900 A.D.-1550 A.D. These people probably were influenced by the Mississippian culture and built enclosures surrounded by stockade walls. The term "Ft. Ancient" can be confusing because it was coined at the site of a hilltop enclosure, now Ohio's Ft. Ancient State Memorial, 35 miles northeast of Cincinnati. The Ft. Ancient culture at first was given credit for building the site, but archeologists have since determined that the place was originally built by the Hopewell and that the Ft. Ancient culture must have moved in later on.

What all of these prehistoric peoples had in common was enough free time, enough muscle and enough organization to move millions of cubic feet of earth and shape it into rational forms.

And at least one other quality: the drive to construct something that, centuries later, still intrigues.

In early April, I logged 1,217 miles across five states in seven days to visit 13 mound groups. I don't recommend that pace. But even so, I still didn't visit every possible mound site, nor do I list them all below. What I do recommend is that you think of this list as a starting point and that you visit several types of sites. By seeing a combination of burial mounds, effigy mounds, geometric mounds and enclosure mounds, you'll develop a wider perspective on the cultures that built them. But that's no promise you'll know them more intimately as a people.

With few exceptions, each site I explored was a place where the breeze rustled tree branches, voices carried on the wind and birdsong was often the loudest sound I heard. Even in the relative quiet, the beat of the past eluded me like an echo grown faint with repetition.

OHIO: HOPEWELL TO SERPENT MOUND

This route begins and ends in the town of Chillicothe, 45 miles south of Columbus. It takes in the Mound City Group of burial mounds at Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, the Seip burial mound, the hilltop earthworks known as Ft. Hill and the effigy Serpent Mound.

Hopewell NHP/Mound City Group

From U.S. Highway 35 at Chillicothe, exit Ohio Highway 104 north. Drive 1.6 miles to Hopewell Culture National Historical Park.

It looks like an exaggerated fairway, grassy and wide open except that this 13-acre tract is squared off by a round-cornered embankment that encompasses some especially prominent mounds. The square footage of Mound City Group is small compared to other Hopewell groupings, but this site is significant because it contains more mounds: 23.

But this is no golf course it's an ancient cemetery. High-ranking dead were brought here for partial cremation in wooden charnel houses the location of one is now indicated by an outline of posts that rise only an inch or two from the ground. The deceased's ashes -- along with objects such as shells from the Gulf of Mexico, points of obsidian from Wyoming and Idaho, sharks teeth from the Atlantic Ocean and large sheets of mica from North Carolina -- would have been placed in a shallow pit in the charnel house floor and covered by a low mound. After several such burials, the charnel house would be dismantled, leaving behind the now-larger mound.

A 1.5-mile trail wanders the grounds outside the embankment wall, but that's not how you'll explore this place. Instead, you'll be drawn straight into the mound complex, past the "borrow pits" from which earth was taken to build the mounds, and through an opening in the embankment wall.

History hasn't been kind to these grounds. What wasn't plowed, the Army appropriated in 1917 to construct Camp Sherman, when much of the place was leveled for the 2,000 or so buildings needed to train 35,000 troops at a time. The railroad tracks that carried supply trains into camp ran right over the mounds nearest the Scioto River.

A walk to the river's edge finds the Scioto brown, fast-moving and out of its banks. An interpretive sign says that on the opposite shore lies a larger mound group, the Hopeton Earthworks.

You can't visit them. You can't even see them for all the trees, but the sign says Hopeton's great circle and great square were each larger than Mound City, with a roadway that would have measured 2,400 feet long. It's no comfort that the inmates at Chillicothe Correctional Institution, next door to Mound City, probably can't see them either.

Much of what you'll see in the Mound City Group has been reconstructed from detailed elevation maps drawn in 1846. The museum displays some of the objects recovered from the mounds: the copper headdress from Mound 13, the pottery bowl from Mound 2. One display case shows nothing but stone "pipes"-- most are carved into realistic animal shapes -- though some are reproductions, and the guide who has worked here for 20 years says they more likely were used as incense burners.

Visitor center is open 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. with extended summer hours. It shows a short film about the Hopewell culture and houses a small museum, gift shop and restrooms. Admission is $2 for adults or $4 for all occupants of the same vehicle. Mound site is grassy, and trails are either of grass or bark. (740-774-1126)

Exit Hopewell NHP south onto Ohio 104, driving into downtown Chillicothe, about 4 miles to U.S. Highway 50. Turn onto U.S. 50 by making a right-hand hairpin turn. Seip Mound State Memorial is 16.3 miles farther, through farm-studded Paint Creek Valley, on U.S. 50.

What remains of this Hopewell site is a 30-foot high oval burial mound 240 feet long and 130 feet wide. Some sources say other mounds are visible, but even through the bare branches and scant undergrowth of early April, that's the only mound I saw. This was once the central earthwork of a site that covered 122 acres surrounded by a mound wall 10 feet high. The location of two cremation shelters has been outlined with wooden posts that, like the similar configuration at Mound City Group, rise no more than a couple of inches from the ground.

Picnic tables, restrooms and a small shed where historical information is posted. Park is open daylight hours and is free. Grassy ground is relatively level, but once you leave the parking lot, there are no paved pathways.

From Seip Mound, continue 3.7 miles on U.S. 50 to and through Bainbridge and exit south on Ohio Highway 41. Continue 10 miles to Ft. Hill State Memorial. This leg of the drive takes you deeper into the hills along serpentine roads that post 30 mph speed limits for good reason. Fields give way to hillside pastures and forests, and other signs caution drivers to watch for horse-and-buggy traffic, also for good reason.

The Hopewell who built this 48-acre hilltop enclosure didn't need a Stairmaster. They'd have been buff enough pacing this 400-foot vertical hike from the parking area up to the summit. If you outlast the climb, the trail will lead you through a "gate" between two of the mounds. The park superintendent who was spading up the packed-earth trail for a new season of visitors said that a lot of people walk right through the gate and never know it. So set a pace that allows you time to study your surroundings. Plan on taking an hour to make it to the summit, catch your breath, study some of the mounds and get back to the car. If you stay at the summit till your thigh muscles stop twitching, you can continue the hike along the 2.3-mile loop trail that outlines the 1.5-mile wall of the enclosure. The mound wall ranges from 6 to 15 feet in height, and there are 33 gates or openings. When Europeans started seeing hilltop enclosures like this, they assumed their use must have been as a fortress, thus Ft. Hill. Scholars have since decided that places like this couldn't have been forts because the borrow pits, or trenches, are on the inside of the walls. The challenge for the park visitor is making out the walls and trenches in the first place they're hard to see because of trees and other vegetation.

A small museum is undergoing renovation and is scheduled to reopen sometime this summer. Museum admission will be $3 for adults children $1.25. The park is free, open daylight hours and has restrooms, picnic tables and a picnic pavilion. Trails are uphill, made of earth and clay, and treacherous when wet. (800-283-8905)

Back on Ohio 41, continue south 10 miles to Locust Grove and head northwest on Ohio Highway 73 4 miles to Serpent Mound State Memorial. The drive meanders through church-camp country (and also past an auto graveyard and at least one used-car corral) and though it only totals 14 miles, count on it taking at least half an hour.

Even when you climb the 35 steps of the metal observation tower, you can't see all of this effigy mound in one shot. What has been so often interpreted as an uncoiling snake winds its seven curves, gaping mouth and the oval it appears ready to consume across the top of a promontory in a long arc. Yet Serpent Mound really isn't so big by modern standards. It's just 1,348 feet long, and you can walk all the way around it on the asphalt path in 15 minutes -- less than that if you don't dawdle at the two overlooks to Ohio Brush Creek and its valley. In fact, the park employee who took the entrance fee bragged that you can see the whole park, serpent and museum, in half an hour.

Neither is Serpent Mound high, varying from two to six feet. The wonder of it is that this embankment of rock, soil and clay was even built, that certain points on its body align with solstice and equinox, and that it has survived. An 1883 photo in the museum shows the mound hedged by corn fields. It has eroded, been excavated, been restored.

They used to think Serpent Mound was built by the Adena culture because the nearby burial mounds, at the park entrance and the picnic grounds, were identified as Adena. But research suggests a construction date around 1070 A.D. and the probability that Ft. Ancient people put it here.

A small museum also houses a snack bar and gift shop. Park is open 10 a.m.-5 p.m. with extended summer hours. Grounds include restrooms and picnic tables. Admission is $5 per car. The pathway around Serpent Mound is narrow but paved with asphalt and reasonably level most of the way. An incline on the far side might pose a challenge to some wheelchairs. (800-752-2757)

Take Ohio 73 until you reach the four-lane divided Ohio Highway 32. Head northeast on Ohio 32. From this road you may return to Chillicothe either of two ways: The scenic route stays with Ohio 32 only until it meets Ohio Highway 772, then wanders north on Ohio 772 back to Chillicothe the fast route sticks with Ohio 32, then picks up U.S. Highway 23 into Chillicothe.

Ross-Chillicothe Convention and Visitors Bureau (800-413-4118)

OHIO: The Newark Earthworks

Newark is 35 miles east of Columbus. To get there from Interstate Highway 70, exit at Ohio Highway 79 north and drive 7.8 miles to Moundbuilders State Memorial on the west side of the highway.

Here's one mound that is big: 1,200 feet in diameter with mounded walls high enough to block much of the traffic noise. Together, the Hopewell's Great Circle, Octagon Mounds and Wright Earthworks formed a system of connected structures that once covered more than 4 square miles -- what some have claimed was the largest geometric earthen complex anywhere in the world.

It takes a solid 20 minutes to walk the inside perimeter of the Great Circle's 26 acres. Though there's no paved path, people have worn their own trail through the grass. The ground inside the Great Circle is tree-studded -- though marked with the tire tracks of mowers -- vast and level except for the central grouping of low mounds, collectively called Eagle Mound, believed to have been used for ceremonies.

Visitor center is open Wednesday-Sunday, Memorial Day-Labor Day, with admission $3 for adults, $1 children. Park grounds are free and open daylight hours year-round. Grassy ground is relatively level, but once you leave the parking area and sidewalk to the visitor center, there are no paved pathways. (800-600-7174)

I didn't visit Newark's Wright Earthworks, but the Ohio State Historical Society locates them at the intersection of James and Waldo Streets.

From the Great Circle, drive south on Ohio Highway 79 1 mile to 30th Street. Make a hard turn back to the right onto 30th Street and drive 1.7 miles to Parkview, where you'll first glimpse the mounds. Turn left onto Parkview and drive two blocks to the parking lot of Moundbuilders Country Club.

Yes, these mounds really are on the grounds of what is now a golf course, the private Moundbuilders Country Club. From the low platform near the parking lot, you can watch golfers make their plays between the mounds before returning to their carts to drive -- over the mounds on paved pathways -- to the next shot. A sign says visitors are welcome to view the mounds as long as they stay off of them and don't bother the golfers. Visitors, however, are not welcome in the clubhouse, another sign says. You're supposed to be able to tune to an AM radio station that will tell more about these mounds, but the radio in the rental car didn't pick it up.

Parking lot, observation platform.

Flint Ridge State Memorial, a flint quarry in use for an estimated 10,000 years, is 4 miles north of I-70 on Ohio Highway 668. But if you leave Newark by way of Ohio 16 east, you'll pass by the home offices of Longaberger (maker of baskets and home decor), which is headquartered in a seven-story, 180,000-square-foot building that's shaped like a giant picnic basket. Then you can head south on Ohio 668.

Licking County Convention and Visitors Bureau (800-589-8224)

OHIO: Miamisburg and Ft. Ancient

South of Dayton, exit Interstate Highway 75 onto Ohio Highway 725 west into Miamisburg 1 mile for a left turn onto Gebhart Church Road. Continue 1.6 miles to Benner Road and turn right. Continue another mile for a right turn onto Mound Road. Miamisburg Mound State Memorial is half a mile on the right. This is a detour route the more direct route to the park is under construction.

You start on a 100-foot bluff above the Miami River Valley, so by the time you climb the 116 steps to the top of this 65-foot conical burial mound, you can see downtown Dayton on the north-northeast horizon. They say this is the largest cone-shaped mound in Ohio, perhaps even in the United States. The mound's base covers 1.5 acres with a 300-foot diameter. It used to be taller, 68 to 70 feet high depending on who's estimating. It took a clumsy excavation attempt in 1869 to lower it to its current height. If not for the nearby smokestacks of Mound Advanced Technology Center and the neighborhood of older homes with newer siding, Miamisburg Mound might look lonely. It's the only mound on the bluff, but that reportedly is the way the Adena did things.

Picnic pavilion, playground and restrooms. Park is free and open daylight hours. Grassy ground is relatively level, but no paved pathways.

Return to I-75, heading south to Ohio Highway 123, just north of Middletown. Take Ohio 123 southeast 13 miles toward and through Lebanon to Ohio Highway 350. Turn east onto Ohio 350 and drive 5 miles to Ft. Ancient State Memorial. You'll drive between a pair of mounds to enter the park.

It's a 270-foot leap from the gorge of the Little Miami River to the summit of this bluff -- a drive so steep that trucks sometimes get stuck making the climb. Up top, more than 3.5 miles of mound walls, some up to 23 feet high, rim the irregularly shaped hilltop, enclosing about 100 acres. The museum here is new, large and works at putting Ft. Ancient into the larger context of history. Exhibits range from information on the Burning Tree Mastodon to the military victory of Little Turtle and Blue Jacket over Gen. St. Clair in 1791 -- and clarify the origin of these particular earthworks: The Hopewell built them, but the Ft. Ancient people moved in later and made modifications. But because the Ft. Ancient culture was the first to be excavated, construction was attributed to them, and thus the name of the site.

Several hiking trails surround the site with interpretive signs posted along the way. Overlooks open onto vistas of other hilltops, and though it would be hard to determine their contours beneath their cloak of forest, the other hilltops don't seem as flat as this one.

Large new museum with restrooms and small gift shop. Grounds have picnic tables and pavilions. Park is open daily 10 a.m.-5 p.m. with admission $5 for adults, $1.25 children. (800-283-8904)

Dayton/Montgomery County Convention & Visitors Bureau (937-226-8211) Lebanon and Warren County Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-791-4FUN) Greater Cincinnati Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-344-3445)

ILLINOIS: Cahokia and Dickson Mounds

From Interstate Highway 55 near St. Louis exit Interstate 255 south. From there, take the Collinsville Road exit to the stop light. Heading west on Collinsville Road, drive 1.3 miles to the entrance of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.

It's hard to say which is worse, the run-down neighborhood of carpet outlets, used-car dealerships and trailer parks or the fact that law-breakers continue to ride all-terrain vehicles over some of the mounds of this United Nations World Heritage Site. Too bad there's nothing but thin air taking the place of the 2-mile long stockade fence that the Mississippian culture erected around this city of mounds a thousand years ago.

Despite the physical assaults and environmental indignities -- train whistles, the smell of burning trash and four lanes of traffic running right through the park -- what's left of the largest pre-historic city north of Mexico is still impressive. It's a climb of 60 steps just to reach the first terrace of Monk's Mound, another 96 to make it to the flat top of this imperfect pyramid. Up here, you can see the skyline of St. Louis, where 29 mounds once stood, according to one of the Cahokia park guides.

Monk's Mound is Cahokia's most prominent structure, 100 feet high, covering 14 acres with 22 million cubic feet of earth. Perhaps between 20,000 to 30,000 people lived in the surrounding 6.5 square miles before Cahokia became a ghost town -- no one knows why -- about 1400 A.D.

Among Cahokia's other features is Woodhenge, a circle of wooden posts believed to serve as a calendar. Only 40 of the original 48 posts have been replaced for visitors to see, for a cyclone fence and the very modern gravel mounds of Maclair Asphalt occupy that area.

Visitor center shows an award-winning film about the site and houses a museum of interpretive displays, snack bar, gift shop and restrooms. Visitor center hours are 9 a.m.-5 p.m., and donations are accepted. Self-guided tours and those led by park volunteers are available. Park is open daylight hours and is free. (618-346-5160)

St. Louis Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-916-0040)

From the intersection of Illinois Highway 97 and U.S. Highway 136 in Havana (southwest of Peoria), drive 4.7 miles north on Illinois 97 to the turnoff to Dickson Mounds Museum museum entrance is another 1.8 miles.

If you want to see a prehistoric mound, you might try Rockwell Indian Mound back in Havana: a park with picnic tables and a pavilion at the end of Orange Street, three-quarters of a mile off Illinois 97. Dickson Mounds Museum is just that: a museum. But it's a large new one, whose show-stopping multi-media production "Reflections on Three Worlds" -- a five-track sound system that blends the music and voices of American Indians with a computer-programmed light and slide presentation -- upstages other interpretive exhibits and artifacts such as pottery, flints, bone necklaces, muskets and a 17-foot dugout canoe, believed crafted 1700-1850 by non-Indians.

Away from the main museum, three buildings shelter excavations of village houses, and there's a hilltop picnic ground, but no visible evidence of the burial exhibit that drew first tourists, and later Native American protesters, here.

Three-story modern museum houses a snack bar, gift shop and restrooms. Open daily 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., and admission is free. (309-547-3721)

Havana Chamber of Commerce (309-543-3528)

IOWA: Toolesboro and Effigy Mounds

Toolesboro Mounds National Historic Site is near the west bank of the Mississippi River in eastern Iowa, about halfway between Burlington and Muscatine on Iowa Highway 99.

As many as nine Hopewell burial mounds may once have dotted this bluff above the Mississippi. There might have been a time when you could see the river from here, but a tangle of trees blocks that view today -- and only three manicured mounds stand out. For many years, it was believed that in 1673 Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette may have canoed their way to an Illini settlement here, or at least very nearby. But that theory fled with new evidence uncovered in Missouri. So only fields and farm houses keep the Toolesboro mounds company now.

A small refurbished museum, with restrooms inside, is open noon-4 p.m. daily, Memorial Day-Labor Day. Mounds are near the parking area. (Iowa State Historical Society, 515-281-5111)

Eastern Iowa Tourism Association (800-891-EITA)

Effigy Mounds National Historical Park is in northeastern Iowa, 3.5 miles north of Marquette on Iowa Highway 76. It's just across the Mississippi River from Prairie du Chien, Wis.

In early April, the late-afternoon sun casts the shadows of aspens, boxelders and sumacs across these cliff tops, 350 feet above the Mississippi River. The shadows are straight, except where the leaf-covered mounds pull the shadows into subtle curves. These low mounds, a row of 16 circular ones along the Fire Point Trail, are among the 200 preserved in this national historical park. It's a job to see them. This loop trail alone covers only 2 miles of the 13 miles of trails in the park. And this trail takes 45 minutes to hike at least that's what the park ranger said.

But it can take twice that long if you are there for more than a simple forest hike. It takes time to study the elongated mound that has three peaks, time to walk the perimeter of Little Bear Mound, time to detour to walk the perimeter of Great Bear Mound -- time to appreciate what is here. (Little Bear, by the way, is 132 strides around Great Bear is 234.)

Those who studied these mounds in 1999 found them highly magnetic, suggesting that topsoil was used to build them. What has been known longer is that fires were once burned in some of the bear-shaped mounds, usually where the head or heart would be located.

The visitor center shows a short film and operates a museum with a gift shop and restrooms. Visitor center hours are 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m. with extended summer hours, and admission is $2 for adults or $4 for all occupants of a vehicle. With the exception of the visitor center grounds, hikes are up steep hillsides to the cliff top. (319-873-3491)

Prairie du Chien Chamber of Commerce (608-326-8555)

Aztalan State Park is about halfway between Madison and Milwaukee, off Interstate Highway 94. From I-94 exit Wisconsin 89 south, driving 1 mile to Jefferson County Highway A east. Stay on A east and take Jefferson County Highway Q south 2 miles to the park entrance.

This 21-acre city would have bordered Crawfish River and would have been surrounded with a 12-foot high stockade fence -- like the reconstructed portions that frame the largest mound here.

The largest mound, a restored terraced pyramid, could pass as the little brother of Monk's Mound at Cahokia. And, in fact, Aztalan is a Mississippian site.

Mount the 13 steps to the mound's first terrace and the additional 17 steps to the top, and you have a good view of the entire Aztalan plaza, a second reconstructed pyramid mound, a grouping of burial mounds and a natural knoll used as a burial ground. A closer study of the stockade fence shows that it had towers posted at regular intervals.

Aztalan shares another trait with Cahokia: It became a ghost town in 1200 A.D. Again, no one knows why, though the remains of charred logs have spurred speculation that a fire took the village.

Picnic tables, restrooms and a shelter where historical information is posted. Park is open daylight hours and is free. There are no paved trails in the central plaza or mound area.

Greater Madison Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-373-6376) Greater Milwaukee Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-554-1448)

Some other Midwest mounds

Grand Rapids, Mich. -- A National Historic Landmark. The site is partially fenced and covered in vegetation. It can be visited, but is hard to find, and historians describe it as a place of interest only to archeologists and Hopewell enthusiasts, not casual visitors. There are no facilities. (Grand Rapids/Kent County Convention & Visitors Bureau, 616-459-8287)

Angel Mounds State Historic Site

Evansville, Ind. -- State park with mounds and reconstructions of stockade fences and other structures that originally would have been built by the Mississippian culture. (812-853-3956)

Anderson, Ind. -- State park with 10 earthworks believed to have been built during Adena and Hopewell periods. (812-853-3956)

To tour the mounds is to share the responsibility of preserving them. The mounds that can be visited today are covered either by lush lawns or by stands of trees and a tangle of undergrowth.

It can hardly be expected that the mounds looked like this when the Mound Builders created them.

Even so, walking on the mounds -- let alone driving vehicles over them as has been reported in recent news coverage of Cahokia -- leads to erosion. It's also disrespectful many mounds are ancient burial sites and thus considered sacred ground by many Native Americans they should be considered sacred by us all.

The mounds of North America have been here far longer than Mt. Vernon or the Golden Gate Bridge or any other famous building in this country. They're of this land, literally, but belong to the ages. Tread softly.


History of Saginaw County

The County of Saginaw is located in Mid-Michigan, in the Great Lakes Bay Region that includes Saginaw, Arenac, Bay, Clare, Gladwin, Gratiot, Isabella, and Midland Counties. It’s comprised of hundreds of square miles of excellent agricultural land, forests, waterways, and manufacturing areas.

Saginaw is a community truly situated at the center of Michigan and all of its attractions.

  • To the south are the major industrial and technical cities of Ann Arbor and Detroit.
  • the north are Michigan’s wonderful natural attractions of lakes, recreation areas, and the Upper Peninsula.
  • To the west is the heart of Michigan and outdoor opportunities.
  • And to the east is Michigan’s Thumb, an area renowned for its outstanding farming industry.

The earliest evidence of a population in the Saginaw Valley is from Paleo-Indian nomads of around 12,000 years ago. They came to the Saginaw Valley to hunt the mammoth and other big game. They left behind them permanent records of their existence in some of the most valuable archaeological sites in Michigan. The population changed from nomadic Paleo-Indians to the Early Archaic culture, and then to the Middle Archaic culture, when the first permanent Indian settlements were made at around 3000 B.C.

The Early Woodland cultures followed, including the Hopewell Indians – the prehistoric mound builders – who settled along the Saginaw River around 500 B.C. By the time the first European explorers and missionaries arrived around 1650, the Late Woodland Indians were occupying the river settlements. The name Saginaw is derived from an Ojibway term “O-Sag-e-non” or “Sag-in-a-we” that means “to flow out” and probably refers to the outflow of the Saginaw River into the Saginaw Bay. The Ojibway were one of the Late Woodland Indian cultures.

Immediately after the War of 1812, the American Fur Company established a trading post on the west side of the Saginaw River. In 1822, Fort Saginaw was built at what is now Court and Hamilton Streets. But, due to the mosquito-infested swamp land that surrounded it, the Fort was abandoned in 1823. Then, in 1836, Saginaw City, population 400, was founded by Norman Little.

By the middle of the century, the population grew to 900, due in part to the German immigrants who established agricultural settlements in the area. Due to infusions of capital by Jesse Hoyt of New York, residents flourished on the eastern side of the Saginaw River as well and East Saginaw was incorporated as a village in 1854. The value of the land’s forests was heavily publicized by Norman Little and in 1855 there were 23 sawmills in the area producing a hundred-million board feet of lumber a year. By the 1880s, two sawmills alone each produced over 50-million board feet.

Intense rivalry and competition developed between Saginaw City and East Saginaw, with the latter being much more prosperous due to funds given by Jesse Hoyt. The rivalry resulted in many civic improvements for both, and a severe case of one-upmanship between the two communities. Architecturally, East Saginaw prospered quite well, with an elaborate 1898 French chateau-style post office (today it’s a museum) and a grand Richardsonian-style library built in 1890, named the Hoyt Library. The library was made possible by a gift of $100,000 from Jesse Hoyt in 1883, plus additional funds afterward.

From the late 1800s to the current day, Saginaw (the combination of both Saginaw City and East Saginaw) has seen its share of memorable events, tragedies, and accomplishments. It saw the transition from carriage works to one of the country’s first automobile dealerships, and from peacetime activities to being a key manufacturer of wartime materiél. It saw its residents become famous, such as actress Marie Dressler and cowboy actor Tim McCoy. It had part of itself destroyed in a terrible fire and severe floods, and was then rebuilt to greater proportions. By virtue of it all, the people of the community of Saginaw can be proud of their heritage. More information can be found at the Public Libraries of Saginaw.


MOUNDS OF THE MIDWEST

They're smaller than you'd think. More delicate. Definitely not flashy. Donald Trump wouldn't brag about seeing one. But in all the world, there's nothing quite like the Indian mounds of North America, built by ancient peoples who left a legacy of earthen building projects and the mystery of why they're there.

There was a time when an estimated 200,000 "earthworks" -- that's the sophisticated term -- marked the land. Only a small fraction has survived the elements, the looter's spade, the farmer's plow, the grind of progress and preposterous theories of their existence.

As it happens, the highest concentration of the most enduring mounds can be toured right here in the Midwest. In what is now Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana, prehistoric cultures built mounds shaped like birds and bears, circles and squares. Some mounds were built along the ridge line of hilltops others were shaped into platform pyramids, perfect cones or avenues of straight lines.

So far as anyone knows, the Mound Builders had no written language they speak now only through what may be studied from the artifacts they left behind. Excavations have revealed sometimes-elaborate burial practices goods and raw materials obtainable only through extensive trade routes even what the builders ate for dinner. The evidence produces the who and what, the when and how.

It just doesn't tell why. Why mounds, especially? Why of earth? Why did they start building them? Why did they stop?

Those questions may never be answered. But archeologists can say that the North American earthworks were built by more than one culture and over many hundreds of years. They have assigned the following names, ballpark dates and characteristics to the Mound Builders:

Adena culture spanned 800 B.C.-100 A.D. and built large, individual cone-shaped mounds, some as high as 60 to 70 feet. They're the ones who left the 65-foot-high Miamisburg Mound the suburbs southwest of Dayton, Ohio, have grown up around it.

Hopewell culture, which has spawned a near cult following among amateur historians, endured 200 B.C.-500 A.D. and is recognized for its construction of large geometric earthworks and a trade network that blanketed the eastern half of North America. The 26-acre Great Circle site at Moundbuilders State Memorial, which these days finds itself in the middle of Newark, Ohio, is one of their legacies.

Effigy Mound culture built earthworks 600 A.D.-1250 A.D. and is recognized, not surprisingly, by the animal-shaped, or effigy, mounds found in what is now Effigy Mounds National Historical Park, on a succession of bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River north of Marquette, Iowa.

Mississippian culture developed into a true civilization, reaching its zenith roughly 1000 A.D.-1400 A.D. at Cahokia, across the Mississippi from St. Louis, just outside of Collinsville, Ill.

Ft. Ancient culture spanned 900 A.D.-1550 A.D. These people probably were influenced by the Mississippian culture and built enclosures surrounded by stockade walls. The term "Ft. Ancient" can be confusing because it was coined at the site of a hilltop enclosure, now Ohio's Ft. Ancient State Memorial, 35 miles northeast of Cincinnati. The Ft. Ancient culture at first was given credit for building the site, but archeologists have since determined that the place was originally built by the Hopewell and that the Ft. Ancient culture must have moved in later on.

What all of these prehistoric peoples had in common was enough free time, enough muscle and enough organization to move millions of cubic feet of earth and shape it into rational forms.

And at least one other quality: the drive to construct something that, centuries later, still intrigues.

In early April, I logged 1,217 miles across five states in seven days to visit 13 mound groups. I don't recommend that pace. But even so, I still didn't visit every possible mound site, nor do I list them all below. What I do recommend is that you think of this list as a starting point and that you visit several types of sites. By seeing a combination of burial mounds, effigy mounds, geometric mounds and enclosure mounds, you'll develop a wider perspective on the cultures that built them. But that's no promise you'll know them more intimately as a people.

With few exceptions, each site I explored was a place where the breeze rustled tree branches, voices carried on the wind and birdsong was often the loudest sound I heard. Even in the relative quiet, the beat of the past eluded me like an echo grown faint with repetition.

OHIO: HOPEWELL TO SERPENT MOUND

This route begins and ends in the town of Chillicothe, 45 miles south of Columbus. It takes in the Mound City Group of burial mounds at Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, the Seip burial mound, the hilltop earthworks known as Ft. Hill and the effigy Serpent Mound.

Hopewell NHP/Mound City Group

From U.S. Highway 35 at Chillicothe, exit Ohio Highway 104 north. Drive 1.6 miles to Hopewell Culture National Historical Park.

It looks like an exaggerated fairway, grassy and wide open except that this 13-acre tract is squared off by a round-cornered embankment that encompasses some especially prominent mounds. The square footage of Mound City Group is small compared to other Hopewell groupings, but this site is significant because it contains more mounds: 23.

But this is no golf course it's an ancient cemetery. High-ranking dead were brought here for partial cremation in wooden charnel houses the location of one is now indicated by an outline of posts that rise only an inch or two from the ground. The deceased's ashes -- along with objects such as shells from the Gulf of Mexico, points of obsidian from Wyoming and Idaho, sharks teeth from the Atlantic Ocean and large sheets of mica from North Carolina -- would have been placed in a shallow pit in the charnel house floor and covered by a low mound. After several such burials, the charnel house would be dismantled, leaving behind the now-larger mound.

A 1.5-mile trail wanders the grounds outside the embankment wall, but that's not how you'll explore this place. Instead, you'll be drawn straight into the mound complex, past the "borrow pits" from which earth was taken to build the mounds, and through an opening in the embankment wall.

History hasn't been kind to these grounds. What wasn't plowed, the Army appropriated in 1917 to construct Camp Sherman, when much of the place was leveled for the 2,000 or so buildings needed to train 35,000 troops at a time. The railroad tracks that carried supply trains into camp ran right over the mounds nearest the Scioto River.

A walk to the river's edge finds the Scioto brown, fast-moving and out of its banks. An interpretive sign says that on the opposite shore lies a larger mound group, the Hopeton Earthworks.

You can't visit them. You can't even see them for all the trees, but the sign says Hopeton's great circle and great square were each larger than Mound City, with a roadway that would have measured 2,400 feet long. It's no comfort that the inmates at Chillicothe Correctional Institution, next door to Mound City, probably can't see them either.

Much of what you'll see in the Mound City Group has been reconstructed from detailed elevation maps drawn in 1846. The museum displays some of the objects recovered from the mounds: the copper headdress from Mound 13, the pottery bowl from Mound 2. One display case shows nothing but stone "pipes"-- most are carved into realistic animal shapes -- though some are reproductions, and the guide who has worked here for 20 years says they more likely were used as incense burners.

Visitor center is open 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. with extended summer hours. It shows a short film about the Hopewell culture and houses a small museum, gift shop and restrooms. Admission is $2 for adults or $4 for all occupants of the same vehicle. Mound site is grassy, and trails are either of grass or bark. (740-774-1126)

Exit Hopewell NHP south onto Ohio 104, driving into downtown Chillicothe, about 4 miles to U.S. Highway 50. Turn onto U.S. 50 by making a right-hand hairpin turn. Seip Mound State Memorial is 16.3 miles farther, through farm-studded Paint Creek Valley, on U.S. 50.

What remains of this Hopewell site is a 30-foot high oval burial mound 240 feet long and 130 feet wide. Some sources say other mounds are visible, but even through the bare branches and scant undergrowth of early April, that's the only mound I saw. This was once the central earthwork of a site that covered 122 acres surrounded by a mound wall 10 feet high. The location of two cremation shelters has been outlined with wooden posts that, like the similar configuration at Mound City Group, rise no more than a couple of inches from the ground.

Picnic tables, restrooms and a small shed where historical information is posted. Park is open daylight hours and is free. Grassy ground is relatively level, but once you leave the parking lot, there are no paved pathways.

From Seip Mound, continue 3.7 miles on U.S. 50 to and through Bainbridge and exit south on Ohio Highway 41. Continue 10 miles to Ft. Hill State Memorial. This leg of the drive takes you deeper into the hills along serpentine roads that post 30 mph speed limits for good reason. Fields give way to hillside pastures and forests, and other signs caution drivers to watch for horse-and-buggy traffic, also for good reason.

The Hopewell who built this 48-acre hilltop enclosure didn't need a Stairmaster. They'd have been buff enough pacing this 400-foot vertical hike from the parking area up to the summit. If you outlast the climb, the trail will lead you through a "gate" between two of the mounds. The park superintendent who was spading up the packed-earth trail for a new season of visitors said that a lot of people walk right through the gate and never know it. So set a pace that allows you time to study your surroundings. Plan on taking an hour to make it to the summit, catch your breath, study some of the mounds and get back to the car. If you stay at the summit till your thigh muscles stop twitching, you can continue the hike along the 2.3-mile loop trail that outlines the 1.5-mile wall of the enclosure. The mound wall ranges from 6 to 15 feet in height, and there are 33 gates or openings. When Europeans started seeing hilltop enclosures like this, they assumed their use must have been as a fortress, thus Ft. Hill. Scholars have since decided that places like this couldn't have been forts because the borrow pits, or trenches, are on the inside of the walls. The challenge for the park visitor is making out the walls and trenches in the first place they're hard to see because of trees and other vegetation.

A small museum is undergoing renovation and is scheduled to reopen sometime this summer. Museum admission will be $3 for adults children $1.25. The park is free, open daylight hours and has restrooms, picnic tables and a picnic pavilion. Trails are uphill, made of earth and clay, and treacherous when wet. (800-283-8905)

Back on Ohio 41, continue south 10 miles to Locust Grove and head northwest on Ohio Highway 73 4 miles to Serpent Mound State Memorial. The drive meanders through church-camp country (and also past an auto graveyard and at least one used-car corral) and though it only totals 14 miles, count on it taking at least half an hour.

Even when you climb the 35 steps of the metal observation tower, you can't see all of this effigy mound in one shot. What has been so often interpreted as an uncoiling snake winds its seven curves, gaping mouth and the oval it appears ready to consume across the top of a promontory in a long arc. Yet Serpent Mound really isn't so big by modern standards. It's just 1,348 feet long, and you can walk all the way around it on the asphalt path in 15 minutes -- less than that if you don't dawdle at the two overlooks to Ohio Brush Creek and its valley. In fact, the park employee who took the entrance fee bragged that you can see the whole park, serpent and museum, in half an hour.

Neither is Serpent Mound high, varying from two to six feet. The wonder of it is that this embankment of rock, soil and clay was even built, that certain points on its body align with solstice and equinox, and that it has survived. An 1883 photo in the museum shows the mound hedged by corn fields. It has eroded, been excavated, been restored.

They used to think Serpent Mound was built by the Adena culture because the nearby burial mounds, at the park entrance and the picnic grounds, were identified as Adena. But research suggests a construction date around 1070 A.D. and the probability that Ft. Ancient people put it here.

A small museum also houses a snack bar and gift shop. Park is open 10 a.m.-5 p.m. with extended summer hours. Grounds include restrooms and picnic tables. Admission is $5 per car. The pathway around Serpent Mound is narrow but paved with asphalt and reasonably level most of the way. An incline on the far side might pose a challenge to some wheelchairs. (800-752-2757)

Take Ohio 73 until you reach the four-lane divided Ohio Highway 32. Head northeast on Ohio 32. From this road you may return to Chillicothe either of two ways: The scenic route stays with Ohio 32 only until it meets Ohio Highway 772, then wanders north on Ohio 772 back to Chillicothe the fast route sticks with Ohio 32, then picks up U.S. Highway 23 into Chillicothe.

Ross-Chillicothe Convention and Visitors Bureau (800-413-4118)

OHIO: The Newark Earthworks

Newark is 35 miles east of Columbus. To get there from Interstate Highway 70, exit at Ohio Highway 79 north and drive 7.8 miles to Moundbuilders State Memorial on the west side of the highway.

Here's one mound that is big: 1,200 feet in diameter with mounded walls high enough to block much of the traffic noise. Together, the Hopewell's Great Circle, Octagon Mounds and Wright Earthworks formed a system of connected structures that once covered more than 4 square miles -- what some have claimed was the largest geometric earthen complex anywhere in the world.

It takes a solid 20 minutes to walk the inside perimeter of the Great Circle's 26 acres. Though there's no paved path, people have worn their own trail through the grass. The ground inside the Great Circle is tree-studded -- though marked with the tire tracks of mowers -- vast and level except for the central grouping of low mounds, collectively called Eagle Mound, believed to have been used for ceremonies.

Visitor center is open Wednesday-Sunday, Memorial Day-Labor Day, with admission $3 for adults, $1 children. Park grounds are free and open daylight hours year-round. Grassy ground is relatively level, but once you leave the parking area and sidewalk to the visitor center, there are no paved pathways. (800-600-7174)

I didn't visit Newark's Wright Earthworks, but the Ohio State Historical Society locates them at the intersection of James and Waldo Streets.

From the Great Circle, drive south on Ohio Highway 79 1 mile to 30th Street. Make a hard turn back to the right onto 30th Street and drive 1.7 miles to Parkview, where you'll first glimpse the mounds. Turn left onto Parkview and drive two blocks to the parking lot of Moundbuilders Country Club.

Yes, these mounds really are on the grounds of what is now a golf course, the private Moundbuilders Country Club. From the low platform near the parking lot, you can watch golfers make their plays between the mounds before returning to their carts to drive -- over the mounds on paved pathways -- to the next shot. A sign says visitors are welcome to view the mounds as long as they stay off of them and don't bother the golfers. Visitors, however, are not welcome in the clubhouse, another sign says. You're supposed to be able to tune to an AM radio station that will tell more about these mounds, but the radio in the rental car didn't pick it up.

Parking lot, observation platform.

Flint Ridge State Memorial, a flint quarry in use for an estimated 10,000 years, is 4 miles north of I-70 on Ohio Highway 668. But if you leave Newark by way of Ohio 16 east, you'll pass by the home offices of Longaberger (maker of baskets and home decor), which is headquartered in a seven-story, 180,000-square-foot building that's shaped like a giant picnic basket. Then you can head south on Ohio 668.

Licking County Convention and Visitors Bureau (800-589-8224)

OHIO: Miamisburg and Ft. Ancient

South of Dayton, exit Interstate Highway 75 onto Ohio Highway 725 west into Miamisburg 1 mile for a left turn onto Gebhart Church Road. Continue 1.6 miles to Benner Road and turn right. Continue another mile for a right turn onto Mound Road. Miamisburg Mound State Memorial is half a mile on the right. This is a detour route the more direct route to the park is under construction.

You start on a 100-foot bluff above the Miami River Valley, so by the time you climb the 116 steps to the top of this 65-foot conical burial mound, you can see downtown Dayton on the north-northeast horizon. They say this is the largest cone-shaped mound in Ohio, perhaps even in the United States. The mound's base covers 1.5 acres with a 300-foot diameter. It used to be taller, 68 to 70 feet high depending on who's estimating. It took a clumsy excavation attempt in 1869 to lower it to its current height. If not for the nearby smokestacks of Mound Advanced Technology Center and the neighborhood of older homes with newer siding, Miamisburg Mound might look lonely. It's the only mound on the bluff, but that reportedly is the way the Adena did things.

Picnic pavilion, playground and restrooms. Park is free and open daylight hours. Grassy ground is relatively level, but no paved pathways.

Return to I-75, heading south to Ohio Highway 123, just north of Middletown. Take Ohio 123 southeast 13 miles toward and through Lebanon to Ohio Highway 350. Turn east onto Ohio 350 and drive 5 miles to Ft. Ancient State Memorial. You'll drive between a pair of mounds to enter the park.

It's a 270-foot leap from the gorge of the Little Miami River to the summit of this bluff -- a drive so steep that trucks sometimes get stuck making the climb. Up top, more than 3.5 miles of mound walls, some up to 23 feet high, rim the irregularly shaped hilltop, enclosing about 100 acres. The museum here is new, large and works at putting Ft. Ancient into the larger context of history. Exhibits range from information on the Burning Tree Mastodon to the military victory of Little Turtle and Blue Jacket over Gen. St. Clair in 1791 -- and clarify the origin of these particular earthworks: The Hopewell built them, but the Ft. Ancient people moved in later and made modifications. But because the Ft. Ancient culture was the first to be excavated, construction was attributed to them, and thus the name of the site.

Several hiking trails surround the site with interpretive signs posted along the way. Overlooks open onto vistas of other hilltops, and though it would be hard to determine their contours beneath their cloak of forest, the other hilltops don't seem as flat as this one.

Large new museum with restrooms and small gift shop. Grounds have picnic tables and pavilions. Park is open daily 10 a.m.-5 p.m. with admission $5 for adults, $1.25 children. (800-283-8904)

Dayton/Montgomery County Convention & Visitors Bureau (937-226-8211) Lebanon and Warren County Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-791-4FUN) Greater Cincinnati Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-344-3445)

ILLINOIS: Cahokia and Dickson Mounds

From Interstate Highway 55 near St. Louis exit Interstate 255 south. From there, take the Collinsville Road exit to the stop light. Heading west on Collinsville Road, drive 1.3 miles to the entrance of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.

It's hard to say which is worse, the run-down neighborhood of carpet outlets, used-car dealerships and trailer parks or the fact that law-breakers continue to ride all-terrain vehicles over some of the mounds of this United Nations World Heritage Site. Too bad there's nothing but thin air taking the place of the 2-mile long stockade fence that the Mississippian culture erected around this city of mounds a thousand years ago.

Despite the physical assaults and environmental indignities -- train whistles, the smell of burning trash and four lanes of traffic running right through the park -- what's left of the largest pre-historic city north of Mexico is still impressive. It's a climb of 60 steps just to reach the first terrace of Monk's Mound, another 96 to make it to the flat top of this imperfect pyramid. Up here, you can see the skyline of St. Louis, where 29 mounds once stood, according to one of the Cahokia park guides.

Monk's Mound is Cahokia's most prominent structure, 100 feet high, covering 14 acres with 22 million cubic feet of earth. Perhaps between 20,000 to 30,000 people lived in the surrounding 6.5 square miles before Cahokia became a ghost town -- no one knows why -- about 1400 A.D.

Among Cahokia's other features is Woodhenge, a circle of wooden posts believed to serve as a calendar. Only 40 of the original 48 posts have been replaced for visitors to see, for a cyclone fence and the very modern gravel mounds of Maclair Asphalt occupy that area.

Visitor center shows an award-winning film about the site and houses a museum of interpretive displays, snack bar, gift shop and restrooms. Visitor center hours are 9 a.m.-5 p.m., and donations are accepted. Self-guided tours and those led by park volunteers are available. Park is open daylight hours and is free. (618-346-5160)

St. Louis Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-916-0040)

From the intersection of Illinois Highway 97 and U.S. Highway 136 in Havana (southwest of Peoria), drive 4.7 miles north on Illinois 97 to the turnoff to Dickson Mounds Museum museum entrance is another 1.8 miles.

If you want to see a prehistoric mound, you might try Rockwell Indian Mound back in Havana: a park with picnic tables and a pavilion at the end of Orange Street, three-quarters of a mile off Illinois 97. Dickson Mounds Museum is just that: a museum. But it's a large new one, whose show-stopping multi-media production "Reflections on Three Worlds" -- a five-track sound system that blends the music and voices of American Indians with a computer-programmed light and slide presentation -- upstages other interpretive exhibits and artifacts such as pottery, flints, bone necklaces, muskets and a 17-foot dugout canoe, believed crafted 1700-1850 by non-Indians.

Away from the main museum, three buildings shelter excavations of village houses, and there's a hilltop picnic ground, but no visible evidence of the burial exhibit that drew first tourists, and later Native American protesters, here.

Three-story modern museum houses a snack bar, gift shop and restrooms. Open daily 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., and admission is free. (309-547-3721)

Havana Chamber of Commerce (309-543-3528)

IOWA: Toolesboro and Effigy Mounds

Toolesboro Mounds National Historic Site is near the west bank of the Mississippi River in eastern Iowa, about halfway between Burlington and Muscatine on Iowa Highway 99.

As many as nine Hopewell burial mounds may once have dotted this bluff above the Mississippi. There might have been a time when you could see the river from here, but a tangle of trees blocks that view today -- and only three manicured mounds stand out. For many years, it was believed that in 1673 Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette may have canoed their way to an Illini settlement here, or at least very nearby. But that theory fled with new evidence uncovered in Missouri. So only fields and farm houses keep the Toolesboro mounds company now.

A small refurbished museum, with restrooms inside, is open noon-4 p.m. daily, Memorial Day-Labor Day. Mounds are near the parking area. (Iowa State Historical Society, 515-281-5111)

Eastern Iowa Tourism Association (800-891-EITA)

Effigy Mounds National Historical Park is in northeastern Iowa, 3.5 miles north of Marquette on Iowa Highway 76. It's just across the Mississippi River from Prairie du Chien, Wis.

In early April, the late-afternoon sun casts the shadows of aspens, boxelders and sumacs across these cliff tops, 350 feet above the Mississippi River. The shadows are straight, except where the leaf-covered mounds pull the shadows into subtle curves. These low mounds, a row of 16 circular ones along the Fire Point Trail, are among the 200 preserved in this national historical park. It's a job to see them. This loop trail alone covers only 2 miles of the 13 miles of trails in the park. And this trail takes 45 minutes to hike at least that's what the park ranger said.

But it can take twice that long if you are there for more than a simple forest hike. It takes time to study the elongated mound that has three peaks, time to walk the perimeter of Little Bear Mound, time to detour to walk the perimeter of Great Bear Mound -- time to appreciate what is here. (Little Bear, by the way, is 132 strides around Great Bear is 234.)

Those who studied these mounds in 1999 found them highly magnetic, suggesting that topsoil was used to build them. What has been known longer is that fires were once burned in some of the bear-shaped mounds, usually where the head or heart would be located.

The visitor center shows a short film and operates a museum with a gift shop and restrooms. Visitor center hours are 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m. with extended summer hours, and admission is $2 for adults or $4 for all occupants of a vehicle. With the exception of the visitor center grounds, hikes are up steep hillsides to the cliff top. (319-873-3491)

Prairie du Chien Chamber of Commerce (608-326-8555)

Aztalan State Park is about halfway between Madison and Milwaukee, off Interstate Highway 94. From I-94 exit Wisconsin 89 south, driving 1 mile to Jefferson County Highway A east. Stay on A east and take Jefferson County Highway Q south 2 miles to the park entrance.

This 21-acre city would have bordered Crawfish River and would have been surrounded with a 12-foot high stockade fence -- like the reconstructed portions that frame the largest mound here.

The largest mound, a restored terraced pyramid, could pass as the little brother of Monk's Mound at Cahokia. And, in fact, Aztalan is a Mississippian site.

Mount the 13 steps to the mound's first terrace and the additional 17 steps to the top, and you have a good view of the entire Aztalan plaza, a second reconstructed pyramid mound, a grouping of burial mounds and a natural knoll used as a burial ground. A closer study of the stockade fence shows that it had towers posted at regular intervals.

Aztalan shares another trait with Cahokia: It became a ghost town in 1200 A.D. Again, no one knows why, though the remains of charred logs have spurred speculation that a fire took the village.

Picnic tables, restrooms and a shelter where historical information is posted. Park is open daylight hours and is free. There are no paved trails in the central plaza or mound area.

Greater Madison Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-373-6376) Greater Milwaukee Convention & Visitors Bureau (800-554-1448)

Some other Midwest mounds

Grand Rapids, Mich. -- A National Historic Landmark. The site is partially fenced and covered in vegetation. It can be visited, but is hard to find, and historians describe it as a place of interest only to archeologists and Hopewell enthusiasts, not casual visitors. There are no facilities. (Grand Rapids/Kent County Convention & Visitors Bureau, 616-459-8287)

Angel Mounds State Historic Site

Evansville, Ind. -- State park with mounds and reconstructions of stockade fences and other structures that originally would have been built by the Mississippian culture. (812-853-3956)

Anderson, Ind. -- State park with 10 earthworks believed to have been built during Adena and Hopewell periods. (812-853-3956)

To tour the mounds is to share the responsibility of preserving them. The mounds that can be visited today are covered either by lush lawns or by stands of trees and a tangle of undergrowth.

It can hardly be expected that the mounds looked like this when the Mound Builders created them.

Even so, walking on the mounds -- let alone driving vehicles over them as has been reported in recent news coverage of Cahokia -- leads to erosion. It's also disrespectful many mounds are ancient burial sites and thus considered sacred ground by many Native Americans they should be considered sacred by us all.

The mounds of North America have been here far longer than Mt. Vernon or the Golden Gate Bridge or any other famous building in this country. They're of this land, literally, but belong to the ages. Tread softly.


Watch the video: Ο γίγαντας κολοκύθας. The Pumpkin Giant Story. παραμυθια. ελληνικα παραμυθια (August 2022).