Geography

Geopolitics in the organization of world space

Geopolitics in the organization of world space


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What is geopolitics?

It is science that focuses on the use of political power under a given territory. In a more practical view, geopolitics comprises analyzes of geography, history, and social sciences mixed with political theory at various levels, from the state to the international-world.

Usually, geopolitics is a word associated with matters involving international relations, diplomatic agreements and all sorts of conflicts between countries, cultures or territorial disputes. It is very common for people to understand geopolitics as a synthesis of current events in our society.

The term was coined by Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén in the early twentieth century, based on the work of the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel "Politische Geographie" (1897).

The concept of geopolitics began to develop from the second half of the nineteenth century, due to the redefinition of borders in Europe and the expansionism of European nations, which became known as imperialism or even neocolonialism. We can highlight the analyzes made by the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904), responsible for the creation of geographic determinism and the theory of the living space.

Against a political background of unifying Germany, as opposed to the already established expansionism of Russia, England, France, and even the United States, Ratzel helped create a German geography that was willing to justify Germany's territorial conquests.

For Ratzel, the full superiority of a given territory would characterize the state. Thus, geopolitical knowledge would point to the state as the centralizer of strategic decisions, which legitimized Germany's imperialist actions, as can be observed in the disputes that originated the two great wars and, in part, in the principles used by Nazism.

In opposition to Ratzel's claims, we can cite French geographer Paul Vidal de La Blache (1845-1918), who created another approach known as possibilism. At the end of the nineteenth century, France still had no established geographical knowledge and, fearing German pretensions, the French state gave La Blache the responsibility of creating a French geography.

According to La Blache, geographic space should not be the sole goal of a nation, because it would have to consider historical time, human actions and other interactions, which actually laid the groundwork for regional geography. Thus, sovereignty over a territory would be linked to regional knowledge, such as the understanding of landforms, climate aspects, economy, population, etc.

Still within this context we can also mention the British geographer Halford Mackinder (1861-1947), who published in 1904 the essay "The Geographic Pivot of History", which pointed to the power of continental territorial conquests, presenting a greater concern with the occupation. of Central Eastern Europe, because land transport was beginning to favor the internalization of occupations, slightly changing the strategies that had hitherto played a major role in maritime conquests.

However, it was the Swedish jurist Rudolf Kjellén (1864-1922), a follower of Ratzel's ideas, who coined the term geopolitics in the year 1916, seeking to establish relations between political events and geographical aspects. It is noteworthy that, today, geopolitics is considered as a theoretical front that includes the territory and its political nuances, not only externally, but also in the internal affairs of a particular nation state.

The period known as the Cold War expressed many of the principles of geopolitics, as it involved a major ideological and territorial dispute between the two powers, the Soviet Union and the United States, with a strong emphasis on the role of the state in strategic decisions and the definition of social values ​​and standards.

With the end of the Cold War, the major geopolitical discussions turn to the fight against terrorism, the nuclear issue, the redefinition of borders in African and Middle Eastern countries and even the social and environmental problems.

Geopolitics in Brazil

In relation to Brazil, there is also interest in geopolitical studies, such as when the federal capital was from Rio de Janeiro - a coastal city, most exposed to an attack - to the city of Brasília - a much more central region.

Brazil has also been noted for its vigilance and presence in Antarctica, including a delimitation of territorial domain and occupation projects in the north of the country, with initiatives such as the "North Channel" project.


Brazilian presence in Antarctica


The Calha Norte project is a development and defense program for northern Brazil. Idealized in 1985, it provided for the military occupation of a strip of the national territory north of the Solimões River and the Amazon River. It is currently subordinate to the Brazilian Ministry of Defense, being implemented by the Armed Forces. The argument used for the implementation of this project is "to strengthen the national presence" along the Amazonian border, considered as a vulnerable point in the national territory.

Today all geopolitical studies are focused on critically analyzing global relations between nations.



Comments:

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  2. Anwyl

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  3. Asadel

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